Sjabloon:Infobox war faction Jacobitism (/ˈækəbˌtɪzəm/ Sjabloon:Respell Skots-Gaelies: Seumasachas Sjabloon:IPA-gd, Sjabloon:Lang-ga) is a name commonly used for the movement that supported the restoration of the House of Stuart to the British throne. It is derived from Jacobus, the Latin version of James.

When James II and VII went into exile after the 1688 Glorious Revolution, the Parliament of England argued he abandoned the English throne and offered it to his Protestant daughter Mary II and her husband William III.[1] The Scottish Convention claimed he 'forfeited' the throne of Scotland by his actions, listed in the Articles of Grievances.[2][3]

The assertion that monarchs gained legitimacy from Parliament, rather than God, or divine right became a key ideological difference between Jacobites and their opponents. However, Jacobitism was a complex mix of ideas, many opposed by the Stuarts themselves; in Ireland, it meant tolerance for Catholicism, which James supported, but also Irish autonomy and reversing the 17th century land settlements, which he opposed. In 1745, Scottish Jacobites opposed the 1707 Union and divine right; Prince Charles supported both.

Outside Ireland, Jacobitism was strongest in the western Scottish Highlands, Perthshire and Aberdeenshire and areas of Northern England with a high proportion of Catholics such as western Lancashire and Northumberland. Sympathisers were also found in parts of Wales, and in the West Midlands and South West England, to some degree overlapping with the Royalist strongholds of the Civil War era. The movement had an international dimension; several European powers sponsored the Jacobites as an extension of larger conflicts, while many Jacobite exiles served in foreign armies.

In addition to the 1689–1691 Williamite War in Ireland and the simultaneous conflict in Scotland, there were open Jacobite revolts in Scotland and England in 1715, 1719 and 1745-6; abortive French-backed invasion attempts in 1708 and 1744; and several unsuccessful plots. While the 1745 rising was briefly a serious crisis for the British state, leading to the recall of British troops from Continental Europe, its collapse and the 1748 withdrawal of French support ended Jacobitism as a serious political movement.


  1. Harris 2007, pp. 271–272.
  2. Barnes 1973, pp. 310-312.
  3. Ferguson 1994, p. 172.


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