Verskil tussen weergawes van "Hindoestani"

1 613 grepe verwyder ,  8 jaar gelede
Rol rekenarvertaalde teks terug.
(Rol rekenarvertaalde teks terug.)
{{Gaan taal na}}
 
{{Inligtingskas Taal
|naam=Hindoestani
}}
 
'''Hindoestani''' (ہندوستانی, हिन्दुस्तानी) stamt hoofsaaklik uit die Khariboli dialekte van [[Delhi]], en bevat 'n groot hoeveelheid van die woordeskat uit [[Persies]], [[Arabies]], [[Sanskrit]] en [[Turks]].<ref name="geomag1935jsh">{{en}} {{Citation | title=The Geographical magazine, Volume 2 | author=Michael Huxley (editor) | year=1935 | isbn= | publisher=Geographical Press | url=http://books.google.com/?id=Z1xOAAAAIAAJ | quote=''... For new terms it can draw at will upon the Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit dictionaries ...''}}</ref><ref name="jrsa1948hae">{{en}} {{Citation | title=Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Volume 97 | author1=Great Britain, Royal Society of Arts | author= | year=1948 | isbn= | publisher= | url=http://books.google.com/?id=fx_SAAAAMAAJ | quote=''... it would be very unwise to restrict it to a vocabulary mainly dependent upon Sanskrit, or mainly dependent upon Persian. If a language is to be strong and virile it must draw on both sources, just as English has drawn on Latin and Teutonic sources ...''}}</ref> Dit is 'n plurisentrise taal, met twee amptelike vorme [[Hindi]] en [[Oerdoe]]<ref name="nunley1999">{{en}} {{Citation | title=The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography | author=Robert E. Nunley, Severin M. Roberts, George W. Wubrick, Daniel L. Roy | year=1999 | isbn=0-13-080180-1 | publisher=Prentice Hall | url=http://books.google.com/?id=7wQAOGMJOqIC | quote=''... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ...''}}</ref>, wat het gestandaardiseer registers van dit. Die derde vorm is as [[Fidjiaanse Hindi]] een van drie [[amptelike taal|amptelike tale]] van [[Fidji]].<ref>{{en}} {{cite web|author=Dr. A. Tschentscher, LL. M. |url=http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/fj00000_.html|title=Section 4 of Fiji Constitution|publisher=www.servat.unibe.ch |date=|accessdate=25 Augustus 2012}}</ref> Die omgangstaal tale is nie te onderskei nie, en die amptelike standaarde is identies in grammatika, maar hulle kan verskille in literêre konvensies en in die akademiese en tegniese woordeskat, met behoud van Oerdu sterker [[Persies]]e, Sentraal-Asiatiese en [[Arabies]]e invloede, en Hindi vertroue meer swaar op [[Sanskrit]]. <ref>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ooH5VfLTQEQC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=urdu+heavy+persian#v=onepage&q=urdu%20heavy%20persian&f=false ''Hindi''] by Yamuna Kachru</ref><ref>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=-xzljvnQ1vAC&pg=PA175&lpg=PA175&dq=hindi+in+perso-arabic+script+india#v=onepage&q=&f=false ''Students' Britannica: India'': Select essays] by Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani page 175</ref>
 
== Geskiedenis ==
Vroeë vorms van hedendaagse Hindoestani voortgekom uit die Midde-Indo-Ariese apabhramsha volkstalen van Noord-Indië in die 7de-13de eeu CE.<ref name="brown2008">{{Citation | title=Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World | author=Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie | year=2008 | isbn=0-08-087774-5 | publisher=Elsevier | url=http://books.google.com/?id=F2SRqDzB50wC | quote=''... Apabhramsha seemed to be in a state of transition from Middle Indo-Aryan to the New Indo-Aryan stage. Some elements of Hindustani appear ... the distinct form of the lingua franca Hindustani appears in the writings of Amir Khusro (1253–1325), who called it Hindwi ...''}}</ref> [[Amir Khusro]], wat in die 13de eeu CE geleef het tydens die [[Sultanaat van Delhi]] periode in Noord-Indië, hierdie vorm word gebruik in sy geskrifte en verwys na die taal as ''Hindavi''.
 
== Verwysings ==
Anonieme gebruiker