Verskil tussen weergawes van "Asma"

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[[Lêer:Asthma attack-airway (bronchiole) constriction-animated.gif|right|thumb|250px|asma-aanval]]
'''Asma''' (van [[Grieks]]: '''άσθμα''', ''ásthma'', "hyging") is 'n algemene [[Kronies (medies)|kroniese]] inflammatoriese [[siekte]] van die [[bronchi|lugweë]], gekarakteriseer deur verskillende en herhalende simptome, omkeerbare lugvloei-obstruksie, en [[bronchospasma]].<ref name="nhlbi2007p11-12" /> Simptome sluit in [[hyging]], [[hoes]], borsbenoudheid, en [[kortasem]].<ref name="bts2009p3" />
 
Behandeling van akute simptome geskied gewoonlik met 'n vinnigwerkende inasemings [[Beta2-adrenergiese agonis|beta-2 agonis]] (soos [[salbutamol]]).<ref name="nhlbi2007p214" /> Simptome kan voorkom word deur die snellers daarvan, soos [[allergene]]<ref name="nhlbi2007p169" /> en [[irritante]], te vermy deur identifisering en afskerming daarvan, asook deur inaseming van [[kortikosteroïde]] (bynierskorshormone).<ref name="gina2009p69" /> [[Leukotriene antagonist]]eantagoniste (middels wat leukotriene inhibeer) is minder effektief as [[kortikosteroïde]] en dus minder gewild.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Fanta CH |title=Asthma |journal=N Engl J Med |volume=360 |issue=10 |pages=1002–14 |year=2009 |month=March |pmid=19264689 |doi=10.1056/NEJMra0804579}}</ref>
 
Die voorkoms van asma het sedert die 1970's aansienlik toegeneem. In 2009 is 300 miljoen mense ter wêreld daardeur geraak.<ref name="gina2009p2" /> In 2009 het asma globaal 250&nbsp;000 sterftes veroorsaak.<ref name="gina2009p2" /> Ten spyte hiervan, is die prognose van asma, met behoorlike kontrole deur stapsgewyse terapie, oor die algemeen goed.
 
Die voorkoms van asma het sedert die 1970's aansienlik toegeneem. In 2009 is 300 miljoen mense ter wêreld daardeur geraak.<ref name="gina2009p2" /> In 2009 het asma globaal 250&nbsp;000 sterftes veroorsaak.</ref name="gina2009p2" /> Ten spyte hiervan, is die prognose van asma, met behoorlike kontrole deur stapsgewyse terapie, oor die algemeen goed.
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==Geskiedenis==
Asma is vir die eerste keer deur [[Hippokrates]], om en by 450 v.C., herken en benoem. Tydens die 1930's–50's, is asma beskou as een van die 'heilige sewe' [[psigosomatiese siektes]]. Die [[Etiologie|aetiologie]] daarvan is as psigologies beskou, met behandeling wat dikwels op psigoanalise en ander '[[beradingskuur|beradingskure]]' gebaseer is.<ref name="pmid16185365"/> Aangesien hierdie psigoanaliste die asmatiese hyg gesien het as die onderdrukte uitroep van 'n kind vir sy of haar ma, was hulle van mening dat die behandeling van depressie veral belangrik was vir indiwidue met asma.<ref name="pmid16185365">{{cite journal |author=Opolski M, Wilson I |title=Asthma and depression: a pragmatic review of the literature and recommendations for future research |journal=Clin Pract Epidemol Ment Health |volume=1 |page=18 |year=2005 |month=September |pmid=16185365 |pmc=1253523 |doi=10.1186/1745-0179-1-18 }}</ref>
 
==Verwysings==
<references/>
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{{Reflist|colwidth=30em|refs=
<ref name="nhlbi2007p11-12">[[#NHLBI|NHLBI 2007]] p.11–12</ref>
<ref name="bts2009p3">[[#BTS|BTS 2009]] p.3</ref>
<ref name="nhlbi2007p184">[[#NHLBI|NHLBI 2007]] p.184-185</ref>
<ref name="nhlbi2007p213">[[#NHLBI|NHLBI 2007]] p.560</ref>
<ref name="nhlbi2007p214">[[#NHLBI|NHLBI 2007]] p.214</ref>
<ref name="nhlbi2007p218">[[#NHLBI|NHLBI 2007]] p.218</ref>
<ref name="nhlbi2007p240">[[#NHLBI|NHLBI 2007]] p.240</ref>
<ref name="nhlbi2007p373">[[#NHLBI|NHLBI 2007]] p.373</ref>
<ref name="nhlbi2007p399">[[#NHLBI|NHLBI 2007]] p.399</ref>
<ref name="nhlbi2007p169">[[#NHLBI|NHLBI 2007]] p.169–172</ref>
<ref name="gina2009p69">[[#GINA|GINA 2009]] p.69</ref>
<ref name="Anderson2007">{{cite journal | last=Anderson | first=HR | coauthors=Gupta R, Strachan DP, Limb ES | title=50 years of asthma: UK trends from 1955 to 2004 | journal=Thorax | volume=62 | issue=1 | pages=85–90 | month=January | year=2007 | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2111282/pdf/85.pdf | pmid=17189533 | doi=10.1136/thx.2006.066407 | pmc=2111282 }}</ref>
<ref name="WHO2009">{{cite web |title=World Health Organization Fact Sheet Fact sheet No 307: Asthma |year=2009 |url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs307/en/print.html |accessdate=2 September 2010}}</ref>
<ref name="Fanta2009">{{cite journal |author=Fanta CH |title=Asthma |journal=New England Journal of Medicine |volume=360 |issue=10 |pages=1002–14 |year=2009 |month=March |pmid=19264689 |doi=10.1056/NEJMra0804579 }}</ref>
<ref name="Getahun2005">{{cite journal |author=Getahun D, Demissie K, Rhoads GG |title=Recent trends in asthma hospitalization and mortality in the United States |journal=Journal of asthma |volume=42 |issue=5 |pages=373–8 |year=2005 |pmid=16036412 |doi=10.1081/JAS-62995 }}</ref>
<ref name="gina2009p2">[[#GINA|GINA 2009]] p.2</ref>
<ref name="Yawn2008">{{cite journal | last=Yawn | first=BP | title=Factors accounting for asthma variability: achieving optimal symptom control for individual patients | journal=Primary Care Respiratory Journal | volume=17 | issue=3 | pages=138–147 | month=September | year=2008 | url=http://www.thepcrj.org/journ/vol17/17_3_138_147.pdf | pmid=18264646 | doi=10.3132/pcrj.2008.00004 }}</ref>
<ref name="RobbinsCotran2010">{{cite book |last=Kumar |first=Vinay |last2=Abbas |first2=Abul K |last3=Fausto |first3=Nelson |last4=Aster |first4=Jon |title=Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease |publisher=Saunders |edition=8th |year=2010 |isbn=9781416031215 |page=688}}</ref>
<ref name="Moore2010">{{cite journal |author=Moore WC, Pascual RM |title=Update in asthma 2009 |journal=American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine |volume=181 |issue=11 |pages=1181–7 |year=2010 |month=June |pmid=20516492 |doi=10.1164/rccm.201003-0321UP}}</ref>
<ref name="Delacourt2004">{{cite journal |last=Delacourt |first=C |title=Bronchial changes in untreated asthma |journal=Archives de Pédiatrie |volume=11 |issue=Suppl. 2 |pages=71s–73s |month=June |year=2004 | pmid=15301800 }}</ref>
<ref name="Schiffman2009">{{cite web |url=http://www.medicinenet.com/chronic_obstructive_pulmonary_disease_copd/article.htm |title=Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease |first=George |last=Schiffman |date=18 December 2009 |publisher=MedicineNet |accessdate=2 September 2010}}</ref>
<ref name="BTS54">[[#BTS|BTS 2009]] p.54</ref>
<ref name="gina2009p9">[[#GINA|GINA 2009]] p.8–9</ref>
<ref name="bts2009p12">[[#BTS|BTS 2009]] p.12</ref>
<ref name="Mason2005">{{cite book |first1=Robert J |last1=Mason |first2=V Courtney |last2=Broaddus |first3=John F |last3=Murray |first4=Jay A |last4=Nadel |title=Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine |publisher=Elsevier |edition=4th |year=2005 |chapter=Asthma |isbn=978-0721603278}}</ref>
<ref name="Barnes">{{cite book |last=Barnes |first=PJ |chapter=Asthma |title=Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine |editor1-last=Fauci |editor1-first=Anthony S |editor2-last=Braunwald |editor2-first=E, |editor3-last=Kasper |editor3-first=DL |location=New York |publisher=McGraw-Hill |year=2008 |edition=17th |isbn=9780071466332 |pages=1596–1607}}</ref>
<ref name="AbuHilal2010">{{cite journal |last1=Abu-Hilal |first1=MA |last2=Mookadam |first2=F |title=Pulsus paradoxus; historical and clinical perspectives |journal=International Journal of Cardiology |volume=138 |issue=3 |pages=229–32 |year=2010 |month=February |pmid=19464740 |doi=10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.04.045}}</ref>
<ref name="Werner2001">{{cite journal |last=Werner |first=HA |title=Status asthmaticus in children: a review |journal=Chest |volume=119 |issue=6 |pages=1596–1607 |year=2001 |month=June |url=http://chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/119/6/1913.long |pmid=11399724 |doi=10.1378/chest.119.6.1913 }}</ref>
}}
 
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