Verskil tussen weergawes van "Fotografie"

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==Sien ook==
* [[Digitale kamera]]
* [[Mik-en-druk-kamera]]
* [[Selfie]]
[[digitale kamera]], [[Mik-en-druk-kamera]]
(often expressed either as fractions of seconds or as an angle, with mechanical shutters) of the shutter to control the amount of time during which the imaging medium is exposed to light for each exposure. Shutter speed may be used to control the amount of light striking the image plane; 'faster' shutter speeds (that is, those of shorter duration) decrease both the amount of light and the amount of image blurring from subject motion or camera motion.
*'''White balance''' – on digital cameras, electronic compensation for the [[color temperature]] associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of [[film stock]]. In addition to using white balance to register natural coloration of the image, photographers may employ white balance to aesthetic end, for example white balancing to a blue object in order to obtain a warm [[color temperature]].
*'''Metering''' – measurement of exposure at a midtone so that highlights and shadows are exposed according to the photographer's wishes. Many modern cameras feature this ability, though it is traditionally accomplished with the use of a separate [[light meter|light metering device]].
*'''ISO speed''' – traditionally used to set the [[film speed]] of the selected film on film cameras, ISO speeds are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's ''gain'' from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system. A correct combination of ISO speed, aperture, and shutter speed leads to an image that is neither too dark nor too light.
*'''Auto-focus point''' – on some cameras, the selection of a point in the imaging frame upon which the auto-focus system will attempt to focus. Many [[Single-lens reflex camera|SLR cameras]] feature multiple auto-focus points in the viewfinder.
Many other elements of the imaging device itself may have a pronounced effect on the quality and/or aesthetic effect of a given photograph; among them are:
*'''Focal length''' and '''type of lens''' ([[Telephoto lens|telephoto]], [[Macro photography|macro]], [[Wide-angle lens|wide angle]], or [[Zoom lens|zoom]])
*'''Filters or scrims''' placed between the subject and the light recording material, either in front of or behind the lens
*Inherent '''sensitivity''' of the medium to light intensity and color/wavelengths.
*The nature of the light '''recording material''', for example its resolution as measured in pixels or grains of silver halide.
Camera controls are inter-related, the total amount of light reaching the film plane (the "exposure") changes with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and focal length of the lens (which changes as the lens is zoomed). Changing any of these controls alters the exposure. Many cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically. This automatic functionality is useful in many situations, and in most situations to occasional photographers.
The duration of an exposure is referred to as shutter speed, often even in cameras that don't have a physical shutter, and is typically measured in fractions of a second. Aperture is expressed by an f-number or f-stop (derived from focal ratio), which is proportional to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the aperture. If the f-number is decreased by a factor of <math>\sqrt 2</math>, the aperture diameter is increased by the same factor, and its area is increased by a factor of 2. The f-stops that might be found on a typical lens include 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, where going up "one stop" (using lower f-stop numbers) doubles the amount of light reaching the film, and stopping down one stop halves the amount of light.
Exposures can be achieved through various combinations of shutter speed and aperture. For example, f/8 at 1/125th of a second and f/4 at 1/500th of a second yield the same amount of light. The chosen combination has an impact on the final result. In addition to the subject or camera movement that might vary depending on the shutter speed, the aperture (and focal length of the lens) determine the depth of field, which refers to the range of distances from the lens that will be in focus. For example, using a long lens and a large aperture (f/2.8, for example), a subject's eyes might be in sharp focus, but not the tip of the nose. With a smaller aperture (f/22), or a shorter lens, both the subject's eyes and nose can be in focus. With very small apertures, such as [[Pinhole camera|pinholes]], a wide range of distance can be brought into focus.
Image capture is only part of the image forming process. Regardless of material, some process must be employed to render the latent image captured by the camera into the final photographic work. This process consists of two steps, development, and printing.
During the printing process, modifications can be made to the print by several controls. Many of these controls are similar to controls during image capture, while some are exclusive to the printing process. Most controls have equivalent digital concepts, but some create different effects. For example, [[dodging]] and [[burning-in|burning]] controls are different between digital and film processes. Other printing modifications include:
* Chemicals and process used during film development
* Duration of exposure — equivalent to shutter speed
* Printing aperture — equivalent to [[aperture]], but has no effect on depth of field
* [[contrast (vision)|Contrast]]
* [[Dodging]] — reduces exposure of certain print areas, resulting in a lighter areas
* [[Burning-in|Burning]] — increases exposure of certain areas, resulting in darker areas
* Paper quality — [[gloss (material appearance)|glossy]], matte, etc
==Uses of photography==
Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as [[Eadweard Muybridge]]'s study of human and animal locomotion in 1887. Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the [[pictorialist]] movement. Military, police and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used to preserve memories of favorites and as a source of entertainment.
==History of photography==
{{main|History of photography}}
[[Lêer:View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Nicéphore Niépce's earliest surviving photograph, c. 1826. This image required an eight-hour exposure, which resulted in sunlight being visible on both sides of the buildings.]]
Modern photography can be traced to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent [[photograph]] was an image produced in 1826 by the [[France|French]] inventor [[Nicéphore Niépce]]. However, the picture took eight hours to [[exposure (photography)|expose]], so he went about trying to find a new process. Working in conjunction with [[Louis Daguerre]], they experimented with silver compounds based on a [[Johann Heinrich Schultz]] discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. Niépce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the [[daguerreotype]] in 1839.
Meanwhile, [[Hercules Florence]] had already created a very similar process in 1832, naming it ''Photographie'', and [[William Fox Talbot]] had earlier discovered another means to fix a silver process image but had kept it secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention, Talbot refined his process so that it might be fast enough to take photographs of people. By 1840, Talbot had invented the [[calotype]] process, which creates [[negative (photography)|negative]] images. [[John Herschel]] made many contributions to the new methods. He invented the [[cyanotype]] process, now familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He discovered sodium thiosulphate solution to be a solvent of silver halides in 1819, and informed Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery in 1839 that it could be used to "fix" pictures and make them permanent. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.
Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made in through the nineteenth century. In 1884, [[George Eastman]] developed the technology of [[photographic film|film]] to replace [[photographic plate]]s, leading to the technology used by film cameras today.
==Photography types==
===Black-and-white photography===
[[Lêer:Monochrome95 o.jpg|thumb|left|160px|"Casting Winds" - this black & white displays the classic monochrome look, as well as the use of simulated optical filtering ([[Wratten number|wratten]] #25) to enhance or diminish the rendering of certain light wavelengths.]]
All photography was originally monochrome, or ''[[black-and-white]]''. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. In modern times, black-and-white has mostly become a minority art form, and most photography has become color photography.
Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images. Some full color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black and whites, and some cameras have even been produced to exclusively shoot monochrome.
===Color photography===
{{main|Color photography}}
[[Color photography]] was explored beginning in the mid [[1800s]]. Early experiments in color could not fix the photograph and prevent the color from fading. The first permanent color photo was taken in [[1861]] by the physicist [[James Clerk Maxwell]].
[[Lêer:Prokudin-Gorskii-12.jpg|thumb|Early color photograph taken by [[Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii|Prokudin-Gorskii]] (1915)]]
One of the early methods of taking color photos was to use three cameras. Each camera would have a color [[filter (photography)|filter]] in front of the lens. This technique provides the [[photographer]] with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image in a [[darkroom]] or processing plant. Russian photographer [[Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii]] developed another technique, with three color plates taken in quick succession.
Practical application of the technique was held back by the very limited color response of early film; however, in the early 1900s, following the work of photo-chemists such as [[Hermann W. Vogel|H. W. Vogel]], emulsions with adequate sensitivity to green and red light at last became available.
The first color plate, [[Autochrome Lumière|Autochrome]], invented by the French [[Auguste and Louis Lumière|Lumière brothers]], reached the market in [[1907]]. It was based on a 'screen-plate' filter made of dyed dots of potato starch, and was the only color film on the market until German [[Agfa]] introduced the similar [[Agfacolor]] in [[1932]]. In [[1935]], American [[Kodak]] introduced the first modern ('integrated tri-pack') color film, [[Kodachrome]], based on three colored emulsions. This was followed in [[1936]] by Agfa's [[Agfacolor|Agfacolor Neue]]. Unlike the Kodachrome tri-pack process the color couplers in Agfacolor Neue were integral with the emulsion layers, which greatly simplified the film processing. Most modern color films, except Kodachrome, are based on the Agfacolor Neue technology. [[Instant film|Instant color film]] was introduced by [[Polaroid Corporation|Polaroid]] in [[1963]].
As an interesting side note, the inventors of Kodachrome, [[Leopold Mannes]] and [[Leopold Godowsky, Jr.]] were both accomplished musicians. Godowsky was the brother-in-law of George Gershwin and his father was [[Leopold Godowsky]], one of the world's greatest pianists.
Color photography may form images as a positive transparency, intended for use in a [[slide projector]] or as color negatives, intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photoprinting equipment.
===Digital photography===
{{main|Digital photography}}
{{See also|Digital versus film photography}}
[[Lêer:Coolscan-V.jpg|thumb|right|250px|[[Nikon]] [[digital camera]] and [[Film scanner|scanner]], which converts film images to digital]]
Traditional photography burdened [[photographers]] working at remote locations without easy access to processing facilities, and competition from television pressured photographers to deliver images to newspapers with greater speed. Photo journalists at remote locations often carried miniature photo labs and a means of transmitting images through telephone lines. In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a [[charge-coupled device]] for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the [[Sony Mavica]]. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In [[1990]], Kodak unveiled the [[DCS 100]], the first commercially available digital camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than [[photojournalism]] and professional photography, commercial [[digital photography]] was born.
Digital imaging uses an electronic [[image sensor]] to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. The primary difference between digital and chemical photography is that analog photography resists manipulation because it involves film, optics and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography, permitting different communicative potentials and applications.
Digital imaging is rapidly replacing film photography in consumer and professional markets. Digital [[point-and-shoot camera]]s have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as [[video]] and [[digital audio|audio]] recording. Kodak announced in January [[2004]] that it would no longer produce reloadable 35 mm cameras after the end of that year. This was interpreted as a sign of the end of film photography. However, Kodak was at that time a minor player in the reloadable film cameras market. In January [[2006]], [[Nikon]] followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end [[Nikon FM10]], and the high-end [[Nikon F6]]. On May 25, 2006, [[Canon Inc.|Canon]] announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.<ref>[ “Canon to Stop Making Single-Lens Camera”] Associated Press, 25 May 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2006.</ref>
Because photography is popularly synonymous with truth ("The camera doesn't lie."), digital imaging has raised many ethical concerns. Many photojournalists have declared they will not crop their pictures, or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make "illustrations," passing them as real photographs. Many courts will not accept digital images as evidence because of their inherently manipulative nature. Today's technology has made picture editing relatively easy for even the novice photographer.
==Photography styles==
===Commercial photography===
The commercial photographic world can be broken down to:
*Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate a service or product. These images are generally done with an [[advertising agency]], [[design firm]] or with an in-house corporate design team.
* Fashion and glamour photography: This type of photography usually incorporates models. [[Fashion photography]] emphasizes the clothes or '''product,''' glamour emphasizes the model. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and in men's magazines. Models in [[glamour photography]] may be nude, but this is not always the case.
*[[Still life photography]] usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made.
*Editorial photography: photographs made to illustrate a story or idea within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine.
*Photojournalism: this can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a truthful documentation of a news story.
*Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images.
*Fine art photography: photographs made to fulfill a vision, and reproduced to be sold directly to the customer.
*Landscape photography: photographs of different locations made to be sold to tourists as postcards
The market for photographic services demonstrates the [[aphorism]] "one picture is worth a thousand words," which has an interesting basis in the [[#History of photography|history of photography]]. Magazines and newspapers, companies putting up Web sites, advertising agencies and other groups pay for photography.
Many people take photographs for self-fulfillment or for commercial purposes. Organizations with a budget and a need for photography have several options: they can assign a member of the organization or hire someone to shoot exactly what thay want, run a public competition, or obtain rights to [[stock photography|stock photographs]] either through traditional stock giants, such as [[Getty Images]], or through smaller [[microstock photography|microstock]] agencies, such as [[Fotolia]].
===Photography as an art form===
[[Lêer:Freak Out, Oblivion, night.jpg|200px|thumb|Manual [[Shutter (photography)|shutter]] control and [[exposure (photography)|exposure]] settings can achieve unusual results]]
[[Lêer:The Steerage 1907 Stieglitz Corrected.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Classic [[Alfred Stieglitz]] photograph, ''The Steerage'' shows unique aesthetic of black and white photos.]]
During the twentieth century, both [[fine art photography]] and [[documentary photography]] became accepted by the [[anglophone|English-speaking]] [[art]] world and the [[art gallery|gallery]] system. In the [[United States]], a handful of photographers spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art. [[Alfred Stieglitz]], [[Edward Steichen]], [[John Szarkowski]], and [[Edward Weston]] the most prominent among them.
At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, 'romantic' look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the f/64 Group to advocate 'straight photography', the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else.
The [[aesthetics]] of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it [[beauty|beautiful]] to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images "written with light": [[Nicéphore Niépce]], [[Louis Daguerre]], and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if it met the definitions and purposes of art.
[[Clive Bell]] in his classic essay ''Art'' states that only "significant form" can distinguish art from what is not art.
{{quotation|There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto's frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible - significant form. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions.|<ref>[[Clive Bell]]. “Art”], 1914. Retrieved 2 September 2006.</ref>}}
==Technical photography==
The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for example) and small creatures when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in [[photomicroscopy]]). The camera also proved useful in recording [[crime scene]]s and the scenes of accidents, one of the first uses being at the scene of the [[Tay Rail Bridge]] disaster of 1879. The set of accident photographs was used in the subsequent court of inquiry so that witnesses could identify pieces of the wreckage, and the technique is now commonplace in courts of law.
==Other photographic image forming techniques==
Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For instance, a [[photocopy]] or [[xerography]] machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static [[Electric charge|electrical charges]] rather than photographic film, hence the term [[electrophotography]]. [[Rayographs]] published by [[Man Ray]] and others are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an [[image scanner]] to produce digital pictures.
==References and additional reading==
for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the <ref(erences/)> tags
===Cited references===
===General references===
* Tom Ang, ''Dictionary of Photography and Digital Imaging'', The Essential Reference for the Modern Photographer (Argentum 2001)
* Freeman Patterson, ''Photography and The Art of Seeing'', 1989, Key Porter Books, ISBN 1-55013-099-4.
*''The Oxford Companion to the Photograph'', ed. by Robin Lenman, Oxford University Press 2005
*"Image Clarity - High Resolution Photography" by John B. Williams, Focal Press 1990, ISBN 0-240-80033-8
===Other readings===
*[ Film versus Digital Discussion, by R. N. Clark]
*Barbara London and John Upton, "Photography (8th Edition)," Prentice Hall, 2004. ISBN 0-13-189609-1.
* Schlegel, Franz-Xaver, "Das Leben der toten Dinge - Studien zur modernen Sachfotografie in den USA 1914-1935", 2 Bände, Stuttgart: Art in Life 1999, ISBN 300-004-407-8.
==See also==
: ''Main list: [[List of basic photography topics]]
===Concepts and principles===
* [[Angle of view]]
* [[Aperture]]
* [[Color temperature]]
* [[Depth of field]]
* [[Depth of focus]]
* [[Double exposure]]
* [[Exposure (photography)|Exposure]]
* [[F-number]]
* [[Film format]]
* [[Film speed]]
* [[Perspective distortion (photography)|Perspective distortion]]
* [[Photographic printing]]
* [[Photographic processes]]
* [[Pinhole camera]]
* [[Red-eye effect]]
* [[Rule of thirds]]
* [[Science of photography]]
* [[Shutter speed]]
* [[Zone System]]
===Photography forms===
* [[Candid photography]]
* [[Cloudscape photography]]
* [[Documentary photography]]
* [[History of erotic photography|Erotic photography]]
* [[Fashion photography]]
* [[Fine art photography]]
* [[Forensic photography]]
* [[Food photography]]
* [[Glamour photography]]
* [[Gonzo photography]]
* [[Landscape art]]
* [[Macro photography]]
* [[Miksang]] (contemplative photography)
* [[Nature photography]]
* [[Photojournalism]]
* [[Portrait photography]]
* [[Sports photography]]
* [[Still life photography]]
* [[Stock photography]]
* [[Street photography]]
* [[Vernacular photography]]
* [[VR photography]]
* [[Wildlife photography]]
===Photography techniques===
* [[Aerial Photography]]
* [[Astrophotography]]
* [[Bokeh]]
* [[Contre-jour]]
* [[Cross processing]]
* [[Cyanotype]]
* [[Digiscoping]]
* [[Photographic processing|Film developing]]
* [[Harris Shutter]]
* [[Infrared photography]]
* [[Kite aerial photography]]
* [[Light painting]]
* [[Lith-Print]]
* [[Macro photography]]
* [[Night photography]]
* [[Panoramic photography]]
* [[Photogram]]
* [[Photographic mosaic]]
* [[Photographic print toning]]
* [[Push printing]]
* [[Push processing]]
* [[Rephotography]]
* [[Rollout photography]]
* [[Sabatier Effect]]
* [[Stereoscopy]]
* [[Sun printing]]
* [[Ultraviolet photography]]
* [[Tilted plane focus]]
* [[Time-lapse]]
* [[Zoom burst]]
===Photographers and photographs===
* [[List of photographers]]
* [[List of most expensive photographs]]
* [[Daguerrotype]]
* [[Timeline of photography technology]]
===Camera and photography equipment===
* [[Camera]]
* [[Dry box]]
* [[Film]]
* [[Film base]]
* [[Film format]]
* [[Film holder]]
* [[Film scanner]]
* [[Film stock]]
* [[Filter (photography)|Filter]]
* [[Flash (photography)|Flash]]
* [[Gray card]]
* [[Movie projector]]
* [[Photographic film]]
* [[Photographic lens]]
* [[Slide projector]]
* [[Still camera]]
* [[Toy camera]]
* [[Tripod (photography)|Tripod]]
* [[View camera]]
* [[Zone plate]]
* [[List of photographic equipment makers]]
* [[Camera obscura]]
* [[Composition (visual arts)|Composition]] in [[visual arts]]
* [[Early photographers of York]]
* [[Gelatin-silver process]]
* [[Gum printing]]
* [[Hand-coloring]]
* [[Holography]]
* [[Kirlian photography]]
* [[Mourning portrait]]s
* [[North American Nature Photography Association]]
* [[Photograph]]
* [[Print permanence]]
* [[Vignetting]]
==External links==
Please do not add links to photo galleries and photographer communities here, nor any site selling photography related items. Wikipedia is not a link farm. If in doubt, discuss a proposed link on the talk page before adding it here.
* [ Instant Memories] — origins of amateur photography
* [] — Copyright law for photographers
* [ Daguerreotype to Digital: A Brief History of the Photographic Process] From the State Library & Archives of Florida.
* [ In the Eye of the Camera] — Limits of photography in 19th century
* [ Judging the authenticity of Photographs: 1800s to Today] Guide for collectors and historians
* [ Rarities of the USSR photochronicles] Pioneers of Soviet Photography.
* [ "Every Picture Has a Story"] - uses pictures from the Smithsonian's collections to show the development of the technology through the nineteenth century.
* []An online photography community sharing information and helping others.
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