Noam Chomsky: Verskil tussen weergawes

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'''Avram Noam Chomsky''' (gebore [[7 Desember]] [[1928]]) is 'n Amerikaanse [[Taalwetenskappe|taalkundige]], [[Filosofie|filosoof]],<ref name="szabo">[ "Noam Chomsky"], deur Zoltán Gendler Szabó, in ''Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers, 1860–1960'', red. Ernest Lepore (2004). "Chomsky's intellectual life had been divided between his work in linguistics and his political activism, philosophy coming as a distant third. Nonetheless, his influence among analytic philosophers has been enormous because of three factors. First, Chomsky contributed substantially to a major methodological shift in the human sciences, turning away from the prevailing empiricism of the middle of the twentieth century: behaviorism in psychology, structuralism in linguistics and positivism in philosophy. Second, his groundbreaking books on syntax (Chomsky (1957, 1965)) laid a conceptual foundation for a new, cognitivist approach to linguistics and provided philosophers with a new framework for thinking about human language and the mind. And finally, he has persistently defended his views against all takers, engaging in important debates with many of the major figures in analytic philosophy..."</ref><ref>''[[The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy]]'' (1999), "Chomsky, Noam," [[Cambridge University Press]], bl. 138. "Chomsky, Noam (born 1928), preeminent American linguist, philosopher, and political activist... Many of Chomsky's most significant contributions to philosophy, such as his influential rejection of behaviorism... stem from his elaborations and defenses of the above consequences..."</ref> [[Kognitiewe wetenskap|kognitiewe wetenskaplike]], [[Logika|logikus]],<ref>{{cite book|title=Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology|year=2003|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-1-57356-521-9|pages=43–44|author=Edwin D. Reilly|quote=In 1956, the logician Noam Chomsky showed that there are only four basically different forms Church-Turing thesis of grammar, which, in decreasing order of sophistication, he called grammars of Type 0, 1, 2, and 3.}}.</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Readings in Machine Translation|year=2003|publisher=MIT Press|isbn=978-0-262-14074-4|author=H. L. Somers|editor=Sergei Nirenburg, H. L. Somers, Yorick Wilks|page=68|quote=I think that this should be of sufficient interest to warrant some more detailed exhibition, especially since this insight is due to an important new, not to say revolutionary, view of the structure of language, recently outlined by the American linguist and logician Noam Chomsky [2], and could perhaps, in its turn and in due time, be turned into a new method of [[machine translation]], which would be more complex than the known ones but also more effective.}}.</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Noam Chomsky: Critical Assessments, Volume 1; Volume 3|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-0-415-10693-1|pages=14–15|authorlink=Bar-Hillel|editor=Carlos Peregrín Otero|year=1994|quote=Chomsky is a professional linguist, a competent mathematical logician, and a trained methodologist with a keen critical sense and an uncanny ability to follow the most abstruse mathematical argument or, if necessary, to produce one himself.}}</ref> politieke kommentator, sosiale [[Aktivisme|aktivis]], voorstander van [[Anargo-sindikalisme|anargo-sindikalisme]],<ref name = "Posner 2003 86">{{Harvnb|Posner|2003|p=86}}: "Chomsky is not a communist and does not admire any of the communist regimes."</ref> [[Skrywer|skrywer]] en [[Dosent|dosent]]. Chomsky is 'n emeritus hoogleraar in taalkunde aan die ''Massachusetts Institute of Technology'' (MIT). Hy het al meer as 100 boeke geskryf en word soms die "vader van moderne taalkunde" genoem.<ref name="Fox">{{cite news |url= |title=A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies|accessdate=7 Oktober 2014 |last=Fox|first=Margalit|date=5 Desember 1998|publisher=New York Times|quote=Mr. the father of modern linguistics and remains the field's most influential practitioner.}}</ref><ref>Thomas Tymoczko, Jim Henle, James M. Henle, ''Sweet Reason: A Field Guide to Modern Logic'', Birkhäuser, 2000, p. 101.</ref> Hy is ook 'n prominente kulturele figuur en is in 2005 as die "wêreld se top openbare intellektueel" aangewys.<ref>{{cite web|author=Duncan Campbell |url= |title=Chomsky is voted world's top public intellectual &#124; World news |publisher=The Guardian |date=2005-10-18 |accessdate=2013-05-29}}</ref>
== Linguistiek ==
Chomsky het die teorie van [[generatiewe grammatika]] geskep. Dit is een van die belangrikste bydraes tot die veld van [[linguistiek]] in die 20ste eeu. Hy het ook gehelp met die [[kognitiewe sielkunde|kognitiewe rewolusie]] in sielkunde deur sy hersiening van [[B. F. Skinner]] se ''Verbal Behavior'' (Verbale Gedrag).<ref>''Verbal behavior'', 1957, ISBN 1-58390-021-7</ref>. Hy bevraagteken die gedragtelike manier om na optrede en taal te kyk. Dit was die belangrikste benadering in die 1950's. Sy natuurlike benadering tot die studie van taal het die [[Taalfilosofie|filosofie van taal]] en [[filosofie van die gees|gees]] verander. Hy het ook die [[Chomsky-hiërargie]] bedink, 'n manier om na formele tale te kyk in terme van hul vermoeë om taal te verduidelik.
== Politiek ==