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In die [[Middeleeue]] het pelgrims in die groot stede van [[Sirië]], [[Egipte]] en [[Irak]] byeengekom om in groepe en karavane van tienduisende na Mekka te reis,<ref>{{cite book |last=Peters |first=F. E. |title= The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places |publisher=Princeton University Press |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=EK5MqskDYC0C&pg=PA164|year=1994| page=164 |isbn=9780691026190}}</ref> dikwels onder staatsbeskerming.<ref name=Campo283>{{cite encyclopedia |editor=Juan E. Campo |encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Islam |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=OZbyz_Hr-eIC&lpg=PP1&dq=isbn%3A1438126964&pg=PA283#v=onepage&q&f=false |publisher=Facts On File |year=2009 |isbn=978-0-8160-5454-1|page=283}}</ref> Hadj-karavane, veral tydens die [[Mameluk|Mameluk-sultanaat]] en sy opvolger, die [[Ottomaanse Ryk]], is deur ’n militêre mag en dokters vergesel.<ref name="Singer141">{{Citation|first=Amy|last=Singer|title=Constructing Ottoman Beneficence: An Imperial Soup Kitchen in Jerusalem|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=zHBHBTNwBQoC&pg=PA141&dq=Amir+al+hajj+Ottoman&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-ruVVb73G4GbNszmgYgG&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Amir%20al%20hajj%20Ottoman&f=false|publisher=SUNY Press|year=2002|isbn=9780791453513|page=141}}</ref><ref name="Philipp102-04">{{Citation|first=Thomas|last=Phillipp|title=The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=WoPF9T4ZiWsC&pg=PA102&dq=Amir+al+hajj&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3ruVVZSAN4mnNp_UgpAE&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Amir%20hajj&f=false|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=1998|isbn=9780521591157|pages=102–104}}</ref> Dit was om die karavane teen [[Bedoeïene]]-rowers en natuurlike terugslae te beskerm,<ref group="nota">Ibn Jubayr het geraamtes gesien van gelowiges wat op pad van dors omgekom het. In die 17de eeu het ’n groep Egiptiese pelgrims meer as 1&nbsp;500 mense en 900 kamele verloor. In 1924 het sowat ’n vyfde van ’n Siriese groep pelgrims gesterf en twee jaar later het 12&nbsp;000 mense vermoedelik tydens die reis gesterf. [''Islam in the World'' deur Malise Ruthven. Granta Publications, 2006. bl. 2. ISBN 1-86207-906-4.]</ref><ref name="Singer141"/><ref name="Philipp102-04"/> en om te verseker die pelgrims het alles wat hulle nodig het.<ref name="Singer141"/> Moslemreisigers soos die geograaf en digter Ibn Jubayr en die geleerde Ibn Battuta het gedetailleerde beskrywings van hadj-reise in die Middeleeue gegee.<ref>{{cite book |last=Peters |first=F. E. |title= The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places|url= https://books.google.com/books?id=EK5MqskDYC0C&pg=PA71 |publisher=Princeton University Press |year=1994| page=71 |isbn=9780691026190}}</ref> Die karavane het gevestigde roetes soos die [[Koninklike Weg]] gevolg.
 
==Tyd van die hadj==
Die datum van die hadj word bepaal deur die [[Islamitiese kalender]], wat op die maandjaar gebaseer is.<ref name=Harrison156>{{cite book |editor1-first=David |editor1-last=Harrison|title=Tourism and the Less Developed World: Issues and Case Studies |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=blJpqa-XApQC&pg=PA156 |accessdate=6 Oktober 2014|year=2001 |publisher=CABI |isbn=9780851994338 |page=156}}</ref><ref name=Reynolds33>{{cite book |last=Reynolds |first=Gabriel Said |authorlink= |title=The Emergence of Islam: Classical Traditions in Contemporary Perspective |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=HWfFX5XDjuIC&lpg=PT33&dq=Gregorian%20date%20of%20Hajj&pg=PT33#v=onepage&q=Gregorian%20date%20of%20Hajj&f=false |accessdate=15 November 2014 |year= 2012 |publisher=Fortress Press |isbn= 9781451408126 |page=33}}</ref> Die gebeure van die hadj vind elke jaar oor vyf dae plaas, wat begin op die 8ste en eindig op die 12de Dhu'l Hidjdja, die laaste maand van die Islamitiese kalender. Van dié vyf dae is die 9de bekend as die [[Dag van Arafah]], en dit is die dag van die hadj. Omdat die Islamitiese kalender ’n maandkalender is en die Gregoriaanse kalender ’n sonkalender, is die Islamitiese jaar sowat 11 dae korter as die Gregoriaanse jaar; daarom verskil die Gregoriaanse datum van die hadj van jaar tot jaar. Die bedevaart begin dus elke jaar 11 (soms 10) dae vroeër.<ref name=Reynolds33/><ref>{{cite book |editor1-first=Aziz |editor1-last=Sheikh |title=Caring for Muslim Patients |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=mgwiloFTrKwC&pg=PA95 |accessdate=15 November 2014 |year=2008 |publisher=Radcliffe Publishing |isbn=9781857758122 |page=95}}</ref> Die hadj kan twee keer in een Gregoriaanse jaar voorkom – dit gebeur elke 33 jaar (die laaste keer was in 2006).<ref name=Umm-al-Qura-Calendar>{{cite web |url=http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/islam/ummalqura_principal.htm |title=Principal Islamic Days of Observance according to Umm al-Qura Calendar |date=2014 |work=The Umm al-Qura Calendar of Saudi Arabia |accessdate=24 November 2014}}</ref> Die tabel hier onder toon die datums aan van die hadj die afgelope paar jaar (die datum verwys na 9 Dhu'l Hidjdja):
{| class="wikitable"
! 2011 !! 2012 !! 2013 !! 2014 !! 2015 !! 2016
|-
| 5 November<ref>{{cite book |last=Penprase |first=Bryan E |title=The Power of Stars: How Celestial Observations Have Shaped Civilization |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XXOxGOpawuMC&pg=PA142 |accessdate= |year=2010 |publisher=Springer Science & Business Media |isbn=9781441968036 |page=142}}</ref> || 25 Oktober || 14 Oktober<ref>{{cite news |title=Hajj celebrated by Muslims in Mecca - video|url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/oct/15/hajj-celebrated-muslims-in-mecca-video |accessdate=16 November 2014|newspaper=The Guardian|date=15 Oktober 2013}}</ref><ref name=Hajj-today>{{cite news |title=Hajj today|url=http://archive.thedailystar.net/beta2/news/hajj-today/ |accessdate=16 November 2014|newspaper=The Daily Star|date=14 Oktober 2013}}</ref> || 3 Oktober<ref>{{cite news |title=Islamic State militants are enemies of humanity: Saudi Grand Mufti|url=http://www.dawn.com/news/1135961/islamic-state-militants-are-enemies-of-humanity-saudi-grand-mufti | accessdate=16 November 2014|newspaper=Dawn |date=3 Oktober 2014}}</ref> || 23 September<ref name=TheDailyStar2015>{{cite news|url=http://www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/pilgrims-pray-peace-148021|title=Hajj Performed: 2 million pilgrims pray for world peace|date=24 September 2015|work=The Daily Star|accessdate=26 September 2015}}</ref> || 12 September<ref>http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/09/eid-al-adha-2016-160901181404738.html</ref>
|}
 
==Notas==