Verskil tussen weergawes van "Gewetensbeswaarde"

5 086 grepe verwyder ,  3 jaar gelede
Sub vertaling weergawe een
(Geskep deur die bladsy "Conscientious objector" te vertaal)
 
(Sub vertaling weergawe een)
Die eerste opgetekende gewetensbeswaarde was Maximilianus, wat in die jaar 295 vir diensplig in die Romeise weermag opgeroep is, maar "het aan die prokonsul in Numidië dat hy weens godsdienstige oortuigings nie in die leër kan diens doen nie". Hy is daarvoor tereggestel en is later heilig verklaar as sint Maximilian.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/ConscientiousObjection_en.pdf|title=Conscientious objection to military service|author=The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights|date=2012}}</ref>
 
'n Vroeë erkeninningerkenning gewetensbeswaar is deur William die Stille gegun aan die Hollandse [[Mennonisme|Mennonietes]] in 1575. Hulle kan militêre diens weier in ruil vir monetêre betaling.<ref name="co">Robert Paul Churchill, "Conscientious Objection", in Donald K. Wells,
''An Encyclopedia of War and Ethics''. </ref>
 
 
=== Universal Declaration of Human Rights ===
In 1948, theis issuedie ofkwessie the right tovan "consciencegewete" wasdeur dealtdie withVerenigde byNasies these UnitedAlgemene Nations General AssemblyVergadering in Articleartikel 18 ofvan thedie [[Universele Verklaring van Menseregte|Universal Declaration of Human Rights]]. It readsbehandel:
 
"Nie elke oortuiging, hoe opreg dit ook al is, sal beskou word as voldoende rede om op vlugtelingstatus aan te dring nie nadat iemand gedros of nie vir diensplig opgedaag het nie. Dit is nie genoeg dat 'n persoon 'n meningsverskil met sy regering het oor die politieke regverdiging van 'n bepaalde militêre aksiexxoptrede het nie. As die soort militêre aksie waarvan die persoon hom wil distansieer ook deur die internasionale gemeenskap veroordeel word as teenstrydig met die basiese reëls van menslike gedrag, kan straf vir dienspligweiering opsigself beskou word as vervolging."
The proclamation was ratified during the General Assembly on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favour, 0 against, with 8 abstentions.<ref>See http://www.unac.org/rights/question.html under "Who are the signatories of the Declaration?"</ref>
 
TheDie proclamationproklamasie wasis ratifiedop during10 theDesember General1948 Assemblydeur ondie 10Algemene DecemberVerdadering 1948met bystemming a vote ofvan 48 inten favourgunste, 0 againstdaarteen, withen 8 abstentionswat buite stemming gebly het. <ref>See http://www.unac.org/rights/question.html under "Who are the signatories of the Declaration?"</ref>
[[Lêer:Muhammad_Ali_NYWTS.jpg|duimnael|"Ek het geen rusie met die Viëtnamese nie... Hulle het my nooit ''nigger'' genoem nie."&nbsp;– [[Muhammad Ali]], 1966]]
In 1974, thehet Assistantdie [[Sekretarisassistent-sekretaris-generaal van die Verenigde Nasies|Secretary-General of the United Nations]], Sean MacBride said, in hissy Nobel-lesing Lecture,gesê: "ToBy thedie rightsregte enshrinedwat vasgelê is in thedie UniversalUniversele DeclarationVerklaring ofvan HumanMenseregte Rightskan onemens morenog might,een withding relevance,heel betoepaslik addedbyvoeg. ItDit is: '"Die [[Universelereg Verklaringom van Menseregte|Thete Rightweier toom Refusedood tote Kill]]maak.'"<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1974/macbride-lecture.html|title=The Imperatives of Survival|year=1974|publisher=Nobel Foundation|accessdate=2008-04-30}}</ref>
 
In 1976, the United Nations treaty the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights entered into force. It was based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and was originally created in 1966. Nations that have signed this treaty are bound by it. Its Article 18 begins: "Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. ..."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm|title=International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights|publisher=Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights|accessdate=2008-05-15|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080705115024/http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm|archivedate=2008-07-05|df=}}</ref>
 
However, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights left the issue of conscientious objection inexplicit, as we see in this quote from War Resisters International: "Article 18 of the Covenant does put some limits on the right [to freedom of thought, conscience and religion], stating that [its] manifestations must not infringe on public safety, order, health or morals. Some states argue that such limitations [on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion] would [derivatively] permit them to make conscientious objection during time of war a threat to public safety, or mass conscientious objection a disruption to public order,...[Some states] even [argue] that it is a 'moral' duty to serve the state in its military."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.wri-irg.org/books/co-guide-un.htm|title=A Conscientious Objector's Guide to the UN Human Rights System|publisher=War Resisters International|accessdate=2008-04-30}}</ref>
 
On July 30, 1993, explicit clarification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Article 18 was made in the United Nations Human Rights Committee general comment 22, Paragraph 11: "The Covenant does not explicitly refer to a right to conscientious objection, but the Committee believes that such a right can be derived from article 18, inasmuch as the obligation to use lethal force may seriously conflict with the freedom of conscience and the right to manifest one's religion or belief."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/religion/I3k.htm|title=Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief. Framework for communications. Conscientious Objection|publisher=Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights|accessdate=2008-05-15}}</ref> In 2006, the Committee has found for the first time a right to conscientious objection under article 18, although not unanimously.<ref>[http://www.bayefsky.com/pdf/korea_t5_iccpr_1321_1322_2004.pdf HRC views in case Yoon and Choi v.]</ref>
 
In 1997, an announcement of [[Amnestie Internasionaal|Amnesty International]]'s forthcoming campaign and briefing for the UN Commission on Human Rights included this quote: "The right to conscientious objection to military service is not a marginal concern outside the mainstream of international human rights protection and promotion."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR010041997?open&of=ENG-2EU|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080515010101/http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR010041997?open&of=ENG-2EU|title=Out of /http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR010041997?open&of=ENG-2EU|dead-url=yes|archivedate=2008-05-15|df=}}</ref>
 
In 1998, the Human Rights Commission reiterated previous statements and added "states should . . . refrain from subjecting conscientious objectors . . . to repeated punishment for failure to perform military service."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3b00f0be10.html|title=Conscientious objection to military service; E/CN.4/RES/1998/77; See Point #5|date=April 22, 1998|publisher=UN Commission on Human Rights|accessdate=2009-12-09}}</ref> It also encouraged states "to consider granting asylum to those conscientious objectors compelled to leave their country of origin because they fear persecution owing to their refusal to perform military service . . . ."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/5bc5759a53f36ab380256671004b643a?Opendocument|title=Conscientious objection to military service; Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77; see point *7|author=United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights|date=April 22, 1998|work=|publisher=United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights|accessdate=2009-12-08}}</ref>
 
 
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In 2006 het die Verenigde Nasies se Menseregtekomitee vir die eerste 'n reg tot gewetensbeswaar onder artikel 18 aanvaar, maar nie eenparig nie.<ref>[http://www.bayefsky.com/pdf/korea_t5_iccpr_1321_1322_2004.pdf HRC views in case Yoon and Choi v.]</ref>
 
In 1998, thehet Humandie RightsMenseregtekommissie Commission'n reiteratedvorige previousverklaring statementsherhaal anden addedbygevoeg: "states shouldlande moet. . . refrainhulle fromdaarvan subjectingweerhou conscientiousom objectorsgewetensbeswaardes .onderwerp .aan .herhaalde tostraf repeatedvir punishmentdie forweiering failureom tomilitêre performdiens militaryte servicedoen."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3b00f0be10.html|title=Conscientious objection to military service; E/CN.4/RES/1998/77; See Point #5|date=April 22, 1998|publisher=UN Commission on Human Rights|accessdate=2009-12-09}}</ref> ItDit alsomoedig encouragedook stateslande aan "toom considerte grantingoorweeg asylumom toasiel thosete conscientiousbied objectorsaan compelledgewetensbeswaardes towat leavegenoop theirvoel countryom ofhul originland becausevan theyoorsprong fearte persecutionverlaat owingomdat tohulle theirbang refusalis tovir performvervolging militaryweens servicehulle .weiering .om .militêre diens te verrig"."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/5bc5759a53f36ab380256671004b643a?Opendocument|title=Conscientious objection to military service; Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77; see point *7|author=United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights|date=April 22, 1998|work=|publisher=United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights|accessdate=2009-12-08}}</ref>
== Godsdienstige redes ==
Daar is gevalle van optrede wat beskou kan word as godsdienstig gemotiveerde gewetensbeswaar in die geskiedenis lank voor die moderne tyd. Byvoorbeeld, die Middeleeuse ''Orkneyinga Saga'' maak melding daarvan die Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney&nbsp;&#x64;&#x69;&#x65;&#x20;&#x68;&#x65;&#x72;&#x74;&#x6F;&#x67;&#x20;&#x76;&#x61;&#x6E;&#x20;&#x4F;&#x72;&#x6B;&#x6E;&#x65;&#x79;&nbsp;– die toekomstige sint Magnus&nbsp;– 'n reputasie gehad het vir godsdienstigheid en saggeaardheid, en vanweë sy godsdienstige oortuigings geweier het om te veg in 'n on [[Anglesey]], [[Wallis]], in het pleks daarvan op sy skip gebly en [[psalms]] gesing.
Die redes om te weier om militêre diens te doen wissel. Baie Vgewetensbeswaardes gee godsdienstige redes. Unitarian Universalists mak beswaar teen oorlog in hul derde begin, "Die doel van 'n wêreldgemeenskap met vrede, vryheid en geregtigheid vir almal". Lede van die Historiese Vredeskerke soos die Kwakers, Mennonietes, [[Amiese Doopsgesindes|Amish]], Ou-orde-Mennonietes, Konserwatiewe Mennonietes en Kerk van die Broeders maak beswaar teen oorlog van die oortuiging dat die Christelike lewe onversoenbaar is met militêre dade, omdat Christus gelas het dat sy volgelinge hul vyande moet liefhê en geweld weier. Sedert die Amerikaanse Burgeroorlog is dit bekend dat Sewendedag Adventiste nievegters, en het in hospitale gewerk of mediese hulp te gee eerder as gevegstake, en die kerk volstaan by die niegevegstandpunt.<ref>http://www.sidadventist.org/lead/index.php/resources/essent/89-leadership</ref>
 
Baie Sewendedag Adventiste het geweier om by die weermag aann te sluit, maar het deelgeneem as hospitaalsoldaat, ambulansbestuurder, ens. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Duitsland is baie SDA-gewetensbeswaardes na konsentrasiekampe of sielsiekinrigtings gestuur; sommige is tereggestel. Party Sewendedag Adventiste was vrywilligers vir die Amerikaanse weermag se Operasie Witjas, waarin hulle deelgeneem aan navorsing. Die Sewendedag Adventiste Kerk het hulle "gewetensdeelnemers" (''conscientious participants'') genoem, omdat hulle gewillig was om hul lewens in potensieel dodelike navorsing te doen. Meer as 2,200 Sewendedag Adventiste het vrywillig deelgeneem aan eksperimente wat verskeie aansteeklike agente behels het van die 1950's tot die 1970's in Fort Detrick, MD.<ref>[http://www.religioustolerance.org/sda3.htm "The Seventh-day Adventist Church: Controversies, books and other resources"],''religioustolerance.org,''Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.</ref> {{bibleverse||Isaiah|2:4|131}}
[[Lêer:Blessed_are_the_Peacemakers.gif|alt=|duimnael|''Geseënd is die vredemakers'' (1917) deur George Bellows.]]
In die vroeë Christelike Kerk het volgelinge van Christus geweier om die wapen op te neem.
Nadat die Romeise Ryk amptelike die Christelike godsdiens aanvaar het, is die Regverdige Oorlog-teologie ontwikkel om oorlogvoering met die Christelike geloof in ooreenstemming te bring. Nadat Theodosius I die Cristelike geloof 'n amptelike godsdiens van die Ryk gemaak het, het hierdie standpunt stadig ontwikkel in die amptelike standpunt van die Westelike Kerk. In die 11de eeu was daar 'n opinieskuif in die Latyns-Christelike tradisie met die kruistogte, wat die idee en aanvaarbaarheid van 'n Heilige Oorlog. Beswaarmakers het die minderheid geword. Sommige teoloë beskou die Konstantynse oorgang en die verlies van Christelike pasifisme as 'n agteruitgaan van die kerk.  
 
Ben Salmon was 'n Katolieke gewetensbeswaarde gedurende die Eerste Wêredloorlog en 'n uitgesproke kritikus van die Geregverdigde Oorlog-teologie. Die Katolieke Kerk het hom veroordeel en ''The New York Times'' het hom gebrandmerk as "spioenasie-verdagte". Die Amerikaanse leër, waarby hy nooit aangesluit het nie, het hom aangekla van drostery en dat hy propaganda versprei, en hom tot die dood veroordeel, wat later verander is na 25 jaar harde arbeid.<ref>{{Cite journal|author=Staff of the Catholic Peace Fellowship|year=2007|title=The Life and Witness of Ben Salmon|journal=Sign of Peace|volume=6.1|issue=Spring 2007|pages=|id=|url=http://www.catholicpeacefellowship.org/nextpage.asp?m=2524}}</ref> 
 
Vanweë hul gewetensbeswaar teen deelname aan militêre diens, gewapen of andersins, is Jehova se Getuies dikwels deru tronkstraf of ander straf in die gestaar gestaar. In Griekeland, byvoorbeeld, voor die ingebruikneem van alternatiewe burgerdiens in 1997, is honderde Getuies toegesluit, party tot drie jaar of langer omdat hulle geweier het om diensplig te doen.
 
In Armenië is jong Gehowa-Getuies opgesluit oor hul gewetensbeswaar teen militêre diens; dit is in November 2013 beëindig.<ref>[http://www.jw.org/en/news/by-region/europe/armenia/armenia-releases-imprisoned-jehovahs-witnesses/ Armenia Releases All Imprisoned Jehovah's Witnesses].</ref> Die regering van Suid-Korea het ook hondere in die tronk gesit omdat hulle diensweiering. In [[Switserland]] is bykans alle Jehawa se Getuies vrygestel van diensplig.
 
Vir gelowiges van Indiense godsdienste, kan die teenstand teen oorlog gegrond wees op die algemene idee van ahimsa, niegeweld, of deur die uitdruklike verbod op geweld in hul goedsdiens. Vir Boeddhiste is een van die vyf leringe "Ek aanvaar die lering om my daarvan te weerhou om lewende wesens dood te maak", wat duidelik teen oorlogvoering is. Die 14de Dalai Lama het gesê: "Oorlog moet verban word na die asblik van die geskiedenis." Aan die ander kant, baie Boeddhistiese sektes, veral in Japan, is deeglike gemilitariseerde oorlogmonikke (''yamabushi'' or ''sōhei'') wat aan die burgeroorloë deelneem.
 
 
 
In [[Armenië|Armenia]], young Jehovah's Witnesses were imprisoned because of their conscientious objection to military service; this was discontinued in November 2013.<ref>[http://www.jw.org/en/news/by-region/europe/armenia/armenia-releases-imprisoned-jehovahs-witnesses/ Armenia Releases All Imprisoned Jehovah's Witnesses].</ref> The government of South Korea also imprisons hundreds for refusing the draft. In [[Switserland|Switzerland]], virtually every Jehovah's Witness is exempted from military service. The [[Finland|Finnish]] government exempts Jehovah's Witnesses from the draft completely.
 
For believers in [[Indiese gelowe|Indian religions]], the opposition to warfare may be based on either the general idea of ahimsa, nonviolence, or on an explicit prohibition of violence by their religion, e.g., for a [[Boeddhisme|Buddhist]], one of the five precepts is "Pānātipātā veramaṇi sikkhāpadam samādiyāmi," or "I undertake the precept to refrain from destroying living creatures," which is in obvious opposition to the practice of warfare. The [[Tenzin Gyatso|14th Dalai Lama]] has stated that war "should be relegated to the dustbin of history." On the other hand, many Buddhist sects, especially in Japan, have been thoroughly militarized, warrior monks (''yamabushi'' or ''sōhei'') participating in the civil wars. Hindu beliefs do not go against the concept of war, as seen in the [[Bhagavad-Gita|Gita]]. Both Sikhs and Hindus believe war should be a last resort and should be fought to sustain life and morality in society.
 
[[Baha’i|Bahá'ís]] are advised to do social service instead of active army service, but when this is not possible because of obligations in certain countries, the Bahá'í law of ''loyalty to one's government'' is preferred and the individual should perform the army service.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://bahai-library.com/mazal_comparison_christianity_bahai&chapter=1|title=Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith|accessdate=13 September 2006|first=Peter|last=Mazal|date=21 October 2003}}</ref><ref name="ud1">{{Cite book|url=http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/UD/ud-136.html|first=Shoghi|last=Effendi|authorlink=Shoghi Effendi|title=Unfolding Destiny|pages=134–135}}</ref>
 
 
 
A notable example of a conscientious objector was the Austrian devout [[Rooms-Katolieke Kerk|Roman Catholic]] Christian Franz Jägerstätter, who was executed on August 9, 1943 for openly refusing to serve in the Nazi [[Wehrmacht]], consciously accepting the penalty of death. He was declared Blessed by [[Pous Benedictus XVI|Pope Benedict XVI]] in 2007 for dying for his beliefs, and is viewed as a symbol of self-sacrificing resistance.
 
== Alternatiewe vir gewetensbeswaardes ==
Party gewetensbeswaardes is onwillig om in enige hoedanigheid in die weermag te dien, terwyl ander nie-strydende rolle aanvaar. Hoewel gewetensbeswaar gewoonlik die weiering om met militêre organisaies saam te werk, as 'n vegter in 'n oorlog of in enige ondersteunende rol, staan party mense kompromitterende vorme van gewetensbeswaar voor. Een so 'n vorm is om 'n nie-strydende rol tydens diensplig te aanvaar. Alternatiewe vir militêre of burgerlike diens is onder meer tronkstraf of ander straf, valslik te beweer jy is ongeskik vir militêre diens weer 'n allergie of 'n hartkwaal, deur diensplig te vermy tot op die maksimum ouderdom, of om te vlug na 'n land waar hulle nie mense uitlewer wat militêre diens probeer ontduik. 
 
Ten spyte van die feit dat internasionale instellings soos die Verenigde Nasies en die Europese Raad gewetensbeswaar as 'n mensereg beskou en bevorder,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www1.law.nyu.edu/journals/jilp/issues/33/pdf/33n.pdf|title=THE STATUS OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION UNDER ARTICLE 4 OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 33 N.Y.U. J. INT'L L. & POL. 379 (2000)|author1=D. CHRISTOPHER DECKER|author2=AND LUCIA FRESA|date=29 March 2001|work=|publisher=New York University School of Law, Issues&nbsp;– Volume 33|accessdate=2009-12-02}}</ref> as of 2004{{As of|2004|lc=on}}, het dit steeds nie 'n wetlike basis in die meeste lande nie. Onder die sowat 100 lande wat diensplig het, het net sowat 30 lande wetlike bepalings, waarvan 25 in Europa is. 
 
In Europa hou die meeste lande met diensplig deesdae by internasionale riglyne vir gewetensbeswaarwetgewing (gehalwe Griekeland, Siprus, Turkye, Finland en Rusland). In baie lande buite EUropa, veral in lande met gewapende konflik, soos in die Demokratiese Republike van die Kongo, word gewetensbeswaardes hard gestraf.
Conservative Mennonites do not object to serving their country in peaceful alternatives (alternative service) such as hospital work, farming, forestry, road construction and similar occupations. Their objection is in being part in any military capacity whether noncombatant or regular service. During World War II and the Korean, Vietnam war eras they served in many such capacities in alternative I-W service programs initially through the Mennonite Central Committee and now through their own alternatives.
 
Ten spyte van die feit dat internasionale instellings soos die Verenigde Nasies en die Europese Raad gewetensbeswaar as 'n mensereg beskou en bevorder,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www1.law.nyu.edu/journals/jilp/issues/33/pdf/33n.pdf|title=THE STATUS OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION UNDER ARTICLE 4 OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 33 N.Y.U. J. INT'L L. & POL. 379 (2000)|author1=D. CHRISTOPHER DECKER|author2=AND LUCIA FRESA|date=29 March 2001|work=|publisher=New York University School of Law, Issues&nbsp;– Volume 33|accessdate=2009-12-02}}</ref> as of 2004{{As of|2004|lc=on}}, het dit steeds nie 'n wetlike basis in die meeste lande nie. Onder die sowat 100 lande wat diensplig het, het net sowat 30 lande wetlike bepalings, waarvan 25 in Europa is. 
 
In Europe, most countries with conscription more or less fulfill international guidelines on conscientious objection legislation (except for Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Finland and Russia) today. In many countries outside Europe, especially in armed conflict areas (e.g. [[Demokratiese Republiek van die Kongo|Democratic Republic of the Congo]]), conscientious objection is punished severely.
 
Die aantal gewetensbeswaardes het in sekere lande heelwat toegeneem, soos in Duitsland, waar gewetensbeswaarmaak 'n grondwetlike reg is, het die persentasie gewetensbeswaardes van 1% toepaslike mans van 1% tot meer 50% in 2003 gestyg.
 
== Diensweiering in Suid-Afrika ==
 
 
Gedurende die 1980's het honderde<ref>The National Registry of Conscientious Objectors launched in 1989, listed some 700 plus objectors for that year alone. </ref> Suid-Afrikaanse wit mans minitêre diensplig ontwyk' geweier of beswaar gemaak daarteen om opgeroep te word vir diensplig in Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag. Sommiges het bloot gedros, of aangesluit by organisasies soos die End Conscription Campaign, 'n anti-oorlogbeweging wat in 1988 verban is, terwyl ander uit die land uit gevlug het en aangesluit het by die Komitee vir Suid-Afrikaanse Oorlogsweerstand. Die meeste het in 'n staat van binnelandse ballingskap geleef en is gedwing om ondergronds te leef binne die grense van die land totdat 'n moratorium in 1993 verklaar is. Weerstand teen die Angola-oorlog, "Suid-Afrika se Viëtnam, was volop in Engelstalige kampusse, en later het die oorlog in die townships die fokus van hierdie groepe geword.
 
 
{{Original research inline|date=January 2011}}
 
 
 
 
 
== Verwysings ==
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wysigings