Verskil tussen weergawes van "Dier"

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===Diere sonder bilaterale simmetrie===
Verskeie [[Filum|dierfilums]] word gekenmerk deur die afwesigheid van bilaterale simmetrie en daar word geglo hulle het vroeg in die evolusie uit ander diere ontwikkel. Die sponse ([[Porifera]]) het vermoedelik eerste ontwikkel en word beskou as die oudste dierfilum.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Bhamrah |first1=H. S. |last2=Juneja |first2=Kavita |title=An Introduction to Porifera |year=2003 |publisher=Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. |isbn=978-81-261-0675-2 |page=58}}</ref> Hulle het nie die komplekse organisasie wat in die meeste ander filums aangetref word nie.<ref>{{cite book|last=Sumich|first=James L.|title=Laboratory and Field Investigations in Marine Life|year=2008|publisher=Jones & Bartlett Learning|isbn=978-0-7637-5730-4|page=67}}</ref> Hul selle is gedifferensieer, maar in die meeste gevalle nie in aparte soorte weefsel georganiseer nie.<ref>{{cite book|last=Jessop|first=Nancy Meyer|title=Biosphere; a study of life|year=1970|publisher=Prentice-Hall|page=428}}</ref> Sponse neem gewoonlik voedingstowwe in deur water deur gaatjies in te trek.<ref>{{cite book|last=Sharma|first=N. S.|title=Continuity And Evolution Of Animals|year=2005|publisher=Mittal Publications|isbn=978-81-8293-018-6|page=106}}</ref> ’n Reeks studies van 2008 tot 2015 ondersteun egter die mening dat [[Ctenophora]], of die ribkwalle, die [[Basale klade|basale lyn]] van diere is.<ref name="class" /><ref>{{Cite journal|title = The Genome of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and Its Implications for Cell Type Evolution|url = http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6164/1242592|journal = Science|date = 13 Desember 2013|issn = 0036-8075|pmc = 3920664|pmid = 24337300|page = 1242592|volume = 342|issue = 6164|doi = 10.1126/science.1242592|first = Joseph F.|last = Ryan|first2 = Kevin|last2 = Pang|first3 = Christine E.|last3 = Schnitzler|first4 = Anh-Dao|last4 = Nguyen|first5 = R. Travis|last5 = Moreland|first6 = David K.|last6 = Simmons|first7 = Bernard J.|last7 = Koch|first8 = Warren R.|last8 = Francis|first9 = Paul|last9 = Havlak}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems|url = http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v510/n7503/full/nature13400.html|journal = Nature|date = 5 Junie 2014 |issn = 0028-0836|pmc = 4337882|pmid = 24847885|pages = 109–114|volume = 510|issue = 7503|doi = 10.1038/nature13400|first = Leonid L.|last = Moroz|first2 = Kevin M.|last2 = Kocot|first3 = Mathew R.|last3 = Citarella|first4 = Sohn|last4 = Dosung|first5 = Tigran P.|last5 = Norekian|first6 = Inna S.|last6 = Povolotskaya|first7 = Anastasia P.|last7 = Grigorenko|first8 = Christopher|last8 = Dailey|first9 = Eugene|last9 = Berezikov|bibcode = 2014Natur.510..109M}}</ref> Dié bevinding is omstrede, want dit dui daarop dat sponse dalk nie so primitief is nie,<ref name="class">{{cite journal |title=Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life |doi=10.1038/nature06614 |pmid=18322464 |volume=452 |issue=7188 |date=April 2008 |journal=Nature |pages=745–9 |last1=Dunn |first1=Casey W. |last2=Hejnol |first2=Andreas |last3=Matus |first3=David Q. |last4=Pang |first4=Kevin |last5=Browne |first5=William E. |last6=Smith |first6=Stephen A. |last7=Seaver |first7=Elaine |last8=Rouse |first8=Greg W. |last9=Obst |first9=Matthias |last10=Edgecombe |first10=Gregory D.
|last11=Sørensen |first11=Martin V. |last12=Haddock |first12=Steven H. D. |last13=Schmidt-Rhaesa |first13=Andreas
|last15=Kristensen |first15=Reinhardt Møbjerg |last16=Wheeler |first16=Ward C. |last17=Martindale |first17=Mark Q. |last18=Giribet |first18=Gonzalo |displayauthors=1 |bibcode=2008Natur.452..745D |last14=Okusu |first14=Akiko}}</ref> en ander navorsers meen dit is ’n statistieke ongerymdheid.<ref>{{Cite journal|title = Phylogenomics Revives Traditional Views on Deep Animal Relationships|url = http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822(09)00805-7|journal = Current Biology|issn = 0960-9822|pmid = 19345102|pages = 706–712|volume = 19|issue = 8|doi = 10.1016/j.cub.2009.02.052|first = Hervé|last = Philippe|first2 = Romain|last2 = Derelle|first3 = Philippe|last3 = Lopez|first4 = Kerstin|last4 = Pick|first5 = Carole|last5 = Borchiellini|first6 = Nicole|last6 = Boury-Esnault|first7 = Jean|last7 = Vacelet|first8 = Emmanuelle|last8 = Renard|first9 = Evelyn|last9 = Houliston|date=April 2009}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = Improved Phylogenomic Taxon Sampling Noticeably Affects Nonbilaterian Relationships|url = http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/9/1983|journal = Molecular Biology and Evolution|date = September 2010|issn = 0737-4038|pmc = 2922619|pmid = 20378579|pages = 1983–1987|volume = 27|issue = 9|doi = 10.1093/molbev/msq089|first = K. S.|last = Pick|first2 = H.|last2 = Philippe|first3 = F.|last3 = Schreiber|first4 = D.|last4 = Erpenbeck|first5 = D. J.|last5 = Jackson|first6 = P.|last6 = Wrede|first7 = M.|last7 = Wiens|first8 = A.|last8 = Alié|first9 = B.|last9 = Morgenstern}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = Deep metazoan phylogeny: When different genes tell different stories|url = http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790313000298|journal = Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution|date = 1 April 2013|pages = 223–233|volume = 67|issue = 1|doi = 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.01.010|first = Tetyana|last = Nosenko|first2 = Fabian|last2 = Schreiber|first3 = Maja|last3 = Adamska|first4 = Marcin|last4 = Adamski|first5 = Michael|last5 = Eitel|first6 = Jörg|last6 = Hammel|first7 = Manuel|last7 = Maldonado|first8 = Werner E. G.|last8 = Müller|first9 = Michael|last9 = Nickel |pmid=23353073}}</ref>
 
Filums soos Ctenophora en [[Cnidaria]], wat [[seeanemone]], [[korale]] en [[jellievis]]se insluit, is radiaal (straalsgewys) simmetries en het spysverteringskamers met een opening wat as mond én anus dien.<ref>{{cite book |title=A Living Bay: The Underwater World of Monterey Bay |year=2000 |publisher=University of California Press |isbn=978-0-520-22149-9 |last1=Langstroth |first1=Lovell |last2=Langstroth |first2=Libby |editor-last=Newberry |editor-first=Todd |page=244}}</ref> Albei het verskillende soorte weefsel, maar dit is nie in [[Orgaan|organe]] georganiseer nie.<ref>{{cite book|last=Safra|first=Jacob E.|title=The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 16|year=2003|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica|isbn=978-0-85229-961-6|page=523}}</ref> Daar is net twee hoofkiemlae, die ektoderm en endoderm, met net verstrooide selle tussenin. Daarom word dié diere soms "diploblasties" genoem.<ref>{{cite book|last=Kotpal|first=R. L.|title=Modern Text Book of Zoology: Invertebrates|publisher=Rastogi Publications|isbn=978-81-7133-903-7|page=184}}</ref>
 
Daar word nou geglo die [[Myxozoa]], mikroskopiese [[parasiet]]e wat aanvanklik as Protozoa beskou is, het binne Cnidaria ontwikkel.<ref>{{Cite journal|title = Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria|url = http://www.pnas.org/content/112/48/14912|journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences|date = 1 December 2015|issn = 0027-8424|pmid = 26627241|pages = 14912–14917|volume = 112|issue = 48|doi = 10.1073/pnas.1511468112|first = E. Sally|last = Chang|first2 = Moran|last2 = Neuhof|first3 = Nimrod D.|last3 = Rubinstein|first4 = Arik|last4 = Diamant|first5 = Hervé|last5 = Philippe|first6 = Dorothée|last6 = Huchon|first7 = Paulyn|last7 = Cartwright|pmc=4672818|bibcode = 2015PNAS..11214912C}}</ref>
 
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