Verskil tussen weergawes van "Dier"

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Daar is ook ’n paar klein groepe diere met bilaterale simmetrie met relatief kriptiese morfologie waarvan die verwantskap met ander diere nog nie baie duidelik is nie. So het onlangse molekulêre studies Acoelomorpha en ''Xenoturbella'' geëien as behorende tot ’n monofiletiese groep,<ref name="Hejnol">{{cite journal | last1 = Hejnol | first1 = A. | last2 = Obst | first2 = M. | last3 = Stamatakis | first3 = A. | last4 = Ott | first4 = M. | last5 = Rouse | first5 = G. W. | last6 = Edgecombe | first6 = G. D. | display-authors = 6 | last7 = et al | year = 2009 | title = Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods | journal = Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | volume = 276 | issue = | pages = 4261–4270 | doi=10.1098/rspb.2009.0896 | pmid=19759036 | pmc=2817096}}</ref><ref name="Philippe2011" /><ref name="Edgecombe 2011">{{Cite journal|last2=Giribet|first2=G.|last3=Dunn|first3=C. W.|last4=Hejnol|first4=A.|last5=Kristensen|first5=R. M.|last6=Neves|first6=R. C.|last7=Rouse|first7=G. W.|last8=Worsaae|first8=K.|last9=Sørensen|first9=M. V.|year=2011|title=Higher-level metazoan relationships: Recent progress and remaining questions|journal=Organisms Diversity & Evolution|volume=11|issue=2|pages=151–172 |doi=10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4|pmc=|pmid=|last1=Edgecombe|first1=G. D.}}</ref> maar daar is weinig ooreenstemming oor of die groep uit Deuterostoma ontwikkel het,<ref name="Philippe2011">{{Cite journal | last1 = Philippe | first1 = H. | last2 = Brinkmann | first2 = H. | last3 = Copley | first3 = R. R. | last4 = Moroz | first4 = L. L. | last5 = Nakano | first5 = H. | last6 = Poustka | first6 = A. J. | last7 = Wallberg | first7 = A. | last8 = Peterson | first8 = K. J. | last9 = Telford | first9 = M. J. | title = Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to ''Xenoturbella'' | journal = Nature | volume = 470 | pages = 255–258 | year = 2011 | pmid = 21307940 | doi = 10.1038/nature09676 |bibcode = 2011Natur.470..255P | issue=7333 | pmc=4025995}}</ref> en of dit ’n sustergroep van alle ander diere met bilaterale simmetrie (Nephrozoa) verteenwoordig.<ref name="Rouse 2016">{{cite journal |last=Rouse |first=Greg W. |last2=Wilson |first2=Nerida G. |last3=Carvajal |first3=Jose I. |last4=Vrijenhoek |first4=Robert C. |date=2016-02-03 |title=New deep-sea species of Xenoturbella and the position of Xenacoelomorpha |url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v530/n7588/full/nature16545.html |journal=Nature |publisher= |volume= 530|issue=7588 |pages=94–97 |doi=10.1038/nature16545 |access-date=2016-02-03 |pmid=26842060|bibcode=2016Natur.530...94R }}</ref><ref name="Cannon 2016">{{cite journal |last=Cannon |first=Johanna T. |last2=Vellutini |first2=Bruno C. |last3=Smith III |first3=Julian. |last4=Ronquist |first4=Frederik |last5=Jondelius |first5=Ulf |last6=Hejnol |first6=Andreas |date=2016-02-03 |title=Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa |url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v530/n7588/full/nature16520.html |journal=Nature |publisher= |volume= 530|issue=7588 |pages=89–93 |doi=10.1038/nature16520 |access-date=2016-02-03 |pmid=26842059|bibcode=2016Natur.530...89C }}</ref> Ander groepe met onsekere verwantskap sluit Rhombozoa en Orthonectida in. Een filum, Monoblastozoa, is in 1892 deur ’n wetenskaplike beskryf, maar tot dusver was daar geen verdere bewys dat dit bestaan nie.<ref>[http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/32652/title/Gone-Missing--circa-1892/ Gone Missing, circa 1892]</ref>
 
====Deuterostoma en Protostom====
[[File:Superbfairywrenscropped.jpeg|thumb|Twee winterkoninkies van die spesies ''Malurus cyaneus''.]]
 
[[Deuterostoma]] verskil in verskeie opsigte van [[Protostoma]]. Diere van albei groepe het ’n volledige spysverteringstelsel. By laasgenoemde groep ontwikkel die eerste opening wat in die embrio verskyn, in die mond en die tweede opening in die anus. In eersgenoemde groep ontwikkel die openinge andersom.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Peters |first1=Kenneth E. |last2=Walters |first2=Clifford C. |last3=Moldowan |first3=J. Michael |title=The Biomarker Guide: Biomarkers and isotopes in petroleum systems and Earth history |volume=2 |year=2005 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-0-521-83762-0 |page=717}}</ref> By die meeste Protostoma vul selle eenvoudig die binnekant van die [[gastrula]] in om die [[mesoderm]] te vorm, maar by Deuterostoma vorm dit deur die [[invaginasie]] van die [[endoderm]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Safra|first=Jacob E.|title=The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 1; Volume 3|year=2003|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica|isbn=978-0-85229-961-6|page=767}}</ref> Deuterostoma-embrio's ondergaan radiale kliewing (verdeling) en Protostoma spirale kliewing.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Valentine|first=James W.|date=July 1997|title=Cleavage patterns and the topology of the metazoan tree of life|journal=PNAS|publisher=The National Academy of Sciences|volume=94|pages=8001–8005|bibcode = 1997PNAS...94.8001V |doi = 10.1073/pnas.94.15.8001|pmid=9223303|pmc=21545|issue=15}}</ref>
 
Dit alles dui daarop dat Deuterostoma en Protostoma twee aparte, monofiletiese stambome is. Die belangrikste filums van Deuterostoma is [[Echinodermata]] en [[Chordata]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Hyde|first=Kenneth|title=Zoology: An Inside View of Animals|year=2004|publisher=Kendall Hunt|isbn=978-0-7575-0997-1|page=345}}</ref> Eersgenoemde is radiaal simmetries en uitsluitlik seediere, soos [[seester]]re, [[seekastaiings]] en seekomkommers.<ref>{{cite book|last=Alcamo|first=Edward|title=Biology Coloring Workbook|year=1998|publisher=The Princeton Review|isbn=978-0-679-77884-4|page=220}}</ref> Chordata word deur die [[gewerweldes]], diere met rugstringe, oorheers.<ref>{{cite book|last=Holmes|first=Thom|title=The First Vertebrates|page=64|publisher=Infobase Publishing|year=2008|isbn=978-0-8160-5958-4}}</ref> Dit sluit in [[vis]]se, [[amfibie|amfibieë]], [[reptiel]]e, [[voël]]s en [[soogdier]]e.<ref>{{cite book|last=Rice|first=Stanley A.|title=Encyclopedia of evolution|publisher=Infobase Publishing|year=2007|page=75|isbn=978-0-8160-5515-9}}</ref>
 
Deuterostoma sluit ook [[Hemichordata]], of die kraagdraers, in.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Tobin |first1=Allan J.|last2=Dusheck |first2=Jennie |title=Asking about life |year=2005 |publisher=Cengage Learning |isbn=978-0-534-40653-0 |page=497}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = Hemichordate genomes and deuterostome origins|url = http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v527/n7579/full/nature16150.html|journal = Nature|date = 26 November 2015|issn = 0028-0836|pages = 459–465|volume = 527|issue = 7579|doi = 10.1038/nature16150|first = Oleg|last = Simakov|first2 = Takeshi|last2 = Kawashima|first3 = Ferdinand|last3 = Marlétaz|first4 = Jerry|last4 = Jenkins|first5 = Ryo|last5 = Koyanagi|first6 = Therese|last6 = Mitros|first7 = Kanako|last7 = Hisata|first8 = Jessen|last8 = Bredeson|first9 = Eiichi|last9 = Shoguchi|pmid=26580012|pmc=4729200|bibcode = 2015Natur.527..459S}}</ref> Hoewel hulle nie vandag juis volop is nie, behoort die belangrike fossiele [[graptoliet]]e dalk tot hierdie groep.<ref>{{cite book|last=Safra|first=Jacob E.|title=The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 19|year=2003|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica|isbn=978-0-85229-961-6|page=791}}</ref>
 
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