Verskil tussen weergawes van "Dier"

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'''Diere''' behoort tot '''Animalia''', een van vyf (of soms ses) [[Koninkryk (biologie)|biologiese koninkryke]]. Dit word ook '''Metazoa''' genoem. Diere is oor die algemeen veelsellige, [[eukarioot|eukariotiese]] organismes wat ander organismes eet vir voeding. Die meeste diere kan in die een of ander stadium van hul lewe onafhanklik en spontaan beweeg.
 
Diere bestaan reeds van die [[Prekambrium]] (PreЄ) af, maar die meeste bekende dierfilumsdierefilums het tydens die [[Kambrium|Kambriese ontploffing]], sowat 542 miljoen jaar gelede, in die [[fossiel]]rekord verskyn. Diere kan oor die algemeen in [[gewerweldes]] en [[ongewerweldes]] verdeel word. Gewerweldes het ’n ruggraat en maak minder as 5% van alle dierspesiesdierespesies uit. Dit sluit in [[vis]]se, [[amfibie|amfibieë]], [[reptiel]]e, [[voël]]s en [[soogdier]]e. Die res is ongewerweldes; hulle het nie ’n ruggraat nie. Dit sluit in [[weekdier]]e ([[mossel]]s, [[oester]]s, [[seekat]]te, [[pylinkvis]]se, [[slak]]ke); [[geleedpotiges]] ([[insek]]te, [[spinnekop]]pe, [[skerpioen]]e, [[krap]]pe, [[Kreef|krewe]], [[Garnaal|garnale]]); [[ringwurm]]s ([[erdwurm]]s, [[bloedsuier]]s), [[rondewurm]]s, [[platwurm]]s, [[neteldier]]e ([[jellievis]]se, [[Seeanemoon|seeanemone]], [[Koraal|korale]]), [[ribkwal]]le en [[sponsdier]]e.
 
Die studie van diere word [[dierkunde]] of soölogie genoem.
[[Beeld:Dunkleosteus BW.jpg|thumb|''[[Dunkleosteus]]'' was ’n 10&nbsp;m lange [[Voorgeskiedenis|prehistoriese]] [[vis]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/science/jaws-of-steel-on-this-fish-tank/2006/11/29/1164777657728.html|title=Monster fish crushed opposition with strongest bite ever|publisher=smh.com.au}}</ref>]]
 
Daar word algemeen geglo diere het binne die groep [[eukariote]] met [[Sweepdiertjie|sweephare]] (flagella) ontstaan.<ref>{{cite book|last=Campbell|first=Niel A.|title=Biology|year=1990|publisher=Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co.|isbn=978-0-8053-1800-5|edition=2nd|page=560}}</ref> Hul naaste bekende verwante wat steeds bestaan, is die ChoanoflagellataChoanoflagellatea (kraagsweepdiertjies) waarvan die morfologie ooreenstem met dié van die koanosiete (kraagselle) van sekere [[spons]]e.<ref>{{cite book|title=Emerging model organisms: a laboratory manual, Volume 1|year=2008|publisher=Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press|isbn=978-0-87969-872-0|page=1|edition=illustrated|editor=Richard R. Behringer |editor2=Alexander D. Johnson |editor3=Robert E. Krumlauf |editor4=Michael K. Levine |editor5=Nipam Patel |editor6=Neelima Sinha}}</ref>
 
Molekulêre studies plaas diere in ’n supergroep genaamd [[Opisthokonta]], wat ook ChoanoflagellataChoanoflagellatea, die swamme en ’n paar klein parasitiese protiste insluit.<ref>{{cite book |title=Strickberger's evolution: the integration of genes, organisms and populations |year=2008 |publisher=Jones & Bartlett Learning |isbn=978-0-7637-0066-9 |last1=Hall |first1=Brian Keith |last2=Hallgrímsson |first2=Benedikt |last3=Strickberger |first3=Monroe W. |page=278}}</ref> Die naam kom van die ligging van die flagellum aan die agterkant van beweeglike selle, soos by die meeste diere se spermselle, terwyl ander eukariote se flagellum gewoonlik aan die voorkant is.<ref>{{cite book |last=Hamilton |first=Gina |title=Kingdoms of Life – Animals (ENHANCED eBook) |publisher=Lorenz Educational Press |isbn=978-1-4291-1610-7 |page=9}}</ref>
 
Die eerste [[fossiel]]e wat dalk dié van diere is, is uit die [[Proterosoïkum|Proterosoïese Eon]] en het voorgekom in 665&nbsp;miljoen jaar oue rotse<ref name=roseMaloof/> in die Trezona-formasie van Suid-[[Australië]].<ref name=roseMaloof>{{cite journal|title= Possible animal-body fossils in pre-Marinoan limestones from South Australia |journal= Nature Geoscience | volume= 3 | pages= 653–659 |date= 17 Augustus 2010 |url= http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v3/n9/full/ngeo934.html |doi=10.1038/ngeo934 | issue= 9|bibcode = 2010NatGe...3..653M|last1= Maloof|first1= Adam C.|last2= Rose|first2= Catherine V.|last3= Beach|first3= Robert|last4= Samuels|first4= Bradley M.|last5= Calmet|first5= Claire C.|last6= Erwin|first6= Douglas H.|last7= Poirier|first7= Gerald R.|last8= Yao|first8= Nan|last9= Simons|first9= Frederik J. }} [http://www.princeton.edu/geosciences/people/maloof/papers_pub/24Maloof.pdf Pdf]</ref> Daar word geglo die fossiele was van vroeë sponsdiere.
 
Die volgende moontlike dierfossieledierefossiele was uit die einde van die [[Prekambrium]], sowat 610&nbsp;miljoen jaar gelede, en is bekend as die [[Proterosoïkum|Ediacariese]] biota.<ref>{{cite book |title=The annotated Origin: a facsimile of the first edition of On the origin of species |year=2009 |publisher=Harvard University Press |isbn=978-0-674-03281-1 |last1=Costa |first1=James T. |last2=Darwin |first2=Charles |page=308}}</ref> Dit is egter moeilik om ’n verband te vind met latere fossiele. Sommige was dalk voorlopers van moderne filums, hulle kon aparte groepe gewees het of was dalk glad nie diere nie.<ref>{{cite book |last=Schopf |first=J. William |title=Evolution!: facts and fallacies |year=1999 |publisher=Academic Press |isbn=978-0-12-628860-5 |page=7}}</ref>
 
Die meeste bekende filums maak hul verskyning min of meer op dieselfde tyd in die [[Kambrium]]-periode, sowat 542&nbsp;miljoen jaar gelede.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Milsom |first1=Clare |last2=Rigby |first2=Sue |title=Fossils at a Glance |year=2009 |publisher=John Wiley and Sons |isbn=978-1-4051-9336-8}}</ref> Dit is steeds onbekend of dié gebeurtenis, bekend as die Kambriese ontploffing, veroorsaak is deur ’n vinnige differensiasie tussen verskillende groepe en of dit was vanweë ’n verandering in toestande wat fossilering moontlik gemaak het.
 
===Diere sonder bilaterale simmetrie===
Verskeie [[Filum|dierfilumsdierefilums]] word gekenmerk deur die afwesigheid van bilaterale simmetrie en daar word geglo hulle het vroeg in die evolusie uit ander diere ontwikkel. Die sponse ([[Porifera]]) het vermoedelik eerste ontwikkel en word beskou as die oudste dierfilumdierefilum.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Bhamrah |first1=H. S. |last2=Juneja |first2=Kavita |title=An Introduction to Porifera |year=2003 |publisher=Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. |isbn=978-81-261-0675-2 |page=58}}</ref> Hulle het nie die komplekse organisasie wat in die meeste ander filums aangetref word nie.<ref>{{cite book|last=Sumich|first=James L.|title=Laboratory and Field Investigations in Marine Life|year=2008|publisher=Jones & Bartlett Learning|isbn=978-0-7637-5730-4|page=67}}</ref> Hul selle is gedifferensieer, maar in die meeste gevalle nie in aparte soorte weefsel georganiseer nie.<ref>{{cite book|last=Jessop|first=Nancy Meyer|title=Biosphere; a study of life|year=1970|publisher=Prentice-Hall|page=428}}</ref> Sponse neem gewoonlik voedingstowwe in deur water deur gaatjies in te trek.<ref>{{cite book|last=Sharma|first=N. S.|title=Continuity And Evolution Of Animals|year=2005|publisher=Mittal Publications|isbn=978-81-8293-018-6|page=106}}</ref> ’n Reeks studies van 2008 tot 2015 ondersteun egter die mening dat [[Ctenophora]], of die ribkwalle, die [[Basale klade|basale lyn]] van diere is.<ref name="class" /><ref>{{Cite journal|title = The Genome of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and Its Implications for Cell Type Evolution|url = http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6164/1242592|journal = Science|date = 13 Desember 2013|issn = 0036-8075|pmc = 3920664|pmid = 24337300|page = 1242592|volume = 342|issue = 6164|doi = 10.1126/science.1242592|first = Joseph F.|last = Ryan|first2 = Kevin|last2 = Pang|first3 = Christine E.|last3 = Schnitzler|first4 = Anh-Dao|last4 = Nguyen|first5 = R. Travis|last5 = Moreland|first6 = David K.|last6 = Simmons|first7 = Bernard J.|last7 = Koch|first8 = Warren R.|last8 = Francis|first9 = Paul|last9 = Havlak}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems|url = http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v510/n7503/full/nature13400.html|journal = Nature|date = 5 Junie 2014 |issn = 0028-0836|pmc = 4337882|pmid = 24847885|pages = 109–114|volume = 510|issue = 7503|doi = 10.1038/nature13400|first = Leonid L.|last = Moroz|first2 = Kevin M.|last2 = Kocot|first3 = Mathew R.|last3 = Citarella|first4 = Sohn|last4 = Dosung|first5 = Tigran P.|last5 = Norekian|first6 = Inna S.|last6 = Povolotskaya|first7 = Anastasia P.|last7 = Grigorenko|first8 = Christopher|last8 = Dailey|first9 = Eugene|last9 = Berezikov|bibcode = 2014Natur.510..109M}}</ref> Dié bevinding is omstrede, want dit dui daarop dat sponse dalk nie so primitief is nie,<ref name="class">{{cite journal |title=Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life |doi=10.1038/nature06614 |pmid=18322464 |volume=452 |issue=7188 |date=April 2008 |journal=Nature |pages=745–9 |last1=Dunn |first1=Casey W. |last2=Hejnol |first2=Andreas |last3=Matus |first3=David Q. |last4=Pang |first4=Kevin |last5=Browne |first5=William E. |last6=Smith |first6=Stephen A. |last7=Seaver |first7=Elaine |last8=Rouse |first8=Greg W. |last9=Obst |first9=Matthias |last10=Edgecombe |first10=Gregory D.
|last11=Sørensen |first11=Martin V. |last12=Haddock |first12=Steven H. D. |last13=Schmidt-Rhaesa |first13=Andreas
|last15=Kristensen |first15=Reinhardt Møbjerg |last16=Wheeler |first16=Ward C. |last17=Martindale |first17=Mark Q. |last18=Giribet |first18=Gonzalo |displayauthors=1 |bibcode=2008Natur.452..745D |last14=Okusu |first14=Akiko}}</ref> en ander navorsers meen dit is ’n statistieke ongerymdheid.<ref>{{Cite journal|title = Phylogenomics Revives Traditional Views on Deep Animal Relationships|url = http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822(09)00805-7|journal = Current Biology|issn = 0960-9822|pmid = 19345102|pages = 706–712|volume = 19|issue = 8|doi = 10.1016/j.cub.2009.02.052|first = Hervé|last = Philippe|first2 = Romain|last2 = Derelle|first3 = Philippe|last3 = Lopez|first4 = Kerstin|last4 = Pick|first5 = Carole|last5 = Borchiellini|first6 = Nicole|last6 = Boury-Esnault|first7 = Jean|last7 = Vacelet|first8 = Emmanuelle|last8 = Renard|first9 = Evelyn|last9 = Houliston|date=April 2009}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = Improved Phylogenomic Taxon Sampling Noticeably Affects Nonbilaterian Relationships|url = http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/9/1983|journal = Molecular Biology and Evolution|date = September 2010|issn = 0737-4038|pmc = 2922619|pmid = 20378579|pages = 1983–1987|volume = 27|issue = 9|doi = 10.1093/molbev/msq089|first = K. S.|last = Pick|first2 = H.|last2 = Philippe|first3 = F.|last3 = Schreiber|first4 = D.|last4 = Erpenbeck|first5 = D. J.|last5 = Jackson|first6 = P.|last6 = Wrede|first7 = M.|last7 = Wiens|first8 = A.|last8 = Alié|first9 = B.|last9 = Morgenstern}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = Deep metazoan phylogeny: When different genes tell different stories|url = http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790313000298|journal = Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution|date = 1 April 2013|pages = 223–233|volume = 67|issue = 1|doi = 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.01.010|first = Tetyana|last = Nosenko|first2 = Fabian|last2 = Schreiber|first3 = Maja|last3 = Adamska|first4 = Marcin|last4 = Adamski|first5 = Michael|last5 = Eitel|first6 = Jörg|last6 = Hammel|first7 = Manuel|last7 = Maldonado|first8 = Werner E. G.|last8 = Müller|first9 = Michael|last9 = Nickel |pmid=23353073}}</ref>
[[Beeld:Sympetrum flaveolum - side (aka).jpg|thumb|Geelvlerknaaldekokers, ''Sympetrum flaveolum''.]]
 
Die [[Ecdysozoa]] behoort tot Protostomia en is genoem na die algemene eienskap van groei deur vervelling.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dawkins |first=Richard |title=The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution |year=2005 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin Harcourt |isbn=978-0-618-61916-0 |page=381}}</ref> Dit sluit die grootste dierfilumdierefilum, die [[Arthropoda]], in en bevat [[insek]]te, [[spinnekop]]pe, [[krap]]pe, ens. Al dié diere se liggaam is in herhalende segmente verdeel wat gewoonlik in pare voorkom. Twee kleiner filums, Onychophora en Tardigrada, is nabye verwante en deel dié eienskappe. Ecdysozoa sluit ook die [[Nematoda]], of rondewurms, in wat dalk die tweede grootste dierfilumdierefilum is. Rondewurms is meestal mikroskopies en kom voor in feitlik elke omgewing waar daar water is.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Prewitt |first1=Nancy L. |last2=Underwood |first2=Larry S. |last3=Surver |first3=William |title=BioInquiry: making connections in biology |year=2003 |publisher=John Wiley |isbn=978-0-471-20228-8 |page=289}}</ref> ’n Paar is belangrike parasiete.<ref>{{cite book |title=Parasites in social insects |year=1998 |publisher=Princeton University Press |isbn=978-0-691-05924-2 |last=Schmid-Hempel |first=Paul |page=75}}</ref> Kleiner filums wat aan hulle verwant is, is Nematomorpha, of die perdehaarwurms, Kinorhyncha, Priapulida en Loricifera. Hierdie groepe het ’n klein buikholte, wat ’n skynbuikholte genoem word.
 
[[Beeld:Grapevinesnail 01.jpg|thumb|Die wingerdslak ''Helix pomatia''.]]
 
====Lophotrochozoa====
[[Lophotrochozoa]], wat binne die groep Protostomia ontwikkel het, sluit twee van die mees suksesvolle dierfilumsdierefilums in, [[Mollusca]] en [[Annelida]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.lophelia.org/lophelia/biodiv_6.htm |title=Biodiversity: Mollusca|accessdate=2007-11-19 |publisher=The Scottish Association for Marine Science |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20060708083128/http://www.lophelia.org/lophelia/biodiv_6.htm |archivedate = 8 July 2006}}</ref><ref>{{cite video | people = Russell, Bruce J. (Writer), Denning, David (Writer) | title = Branches on the Tree of Life: Annelids| medium = VHS | publisher = BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES |year=2000 }}</ref> Eersgenoemde, wat die tweede grootste dierfilumdierefilum is volgens spesies wat beskryf is, bevat diere soos [[slak]]ke, [[mossel]]s en [[pylinkvis]]se; laasgenoemde die gesegmenteerde wurms, soos erdwurms en [[bloedsuier]]s. Hierdie twee groepe is lank as nou verwant beskou omdat hulle soortgelyke larwes het, maar Annelida is as nader aan Arthropoda beskou omdat albei gesegmenteer is.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Eernisse |first1=Douglas J. |last2=Albert |first2=James S. |last3=Anderson |first3=Frank E. |title=Annelida and Arthropoda are not sister taxa: A phylogenetic analysis of spiralean metazoan morphology |journal=Systematic Biology |volume=41 |issue=3 |pages=305–330 |date=1 September 1992 |doi=10.2307/2992569 |jstor=2992569}}</ref> Nou word hulle beskou as die resultaat van saamlopende (maar onafhanklike) evolusie vanweë baie morfologiese en genetiese verskille tussen die twee filums.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Phylogenetic Relationships of Annelids, Molluscs, and Arthropods Evidenced from Molecules and Morphology |journal=Journal of Molecular Evolution |volume=43 |issue=3 |pages=207–215 |publisher=Springer |location=New York |date=September 1996 |doi=10.1007/PL00006079 |pmid=8703086 |last1=Kim |first1=Chang Bae |last2=Moon |first2=Seung Yeo |last3=Gelder |first3=Stuart R. |last4=Kim |first4=Won}}</ref>
 
Lophotrochozoa sluit ook Nemertea, of die snoerwurms, Sipuncula en verskeie filums in wat ’n sirkel tentakels met trilhare om die mond het.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Collins |first=Allen G. |title=The Lophophore |url=http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss7/lophophore.html |year=1995 |publisher=University of California Museum of Paleontology |accessdate=2015-03-23}}</ref>
| colspan=3 style="text-align:left; background:#ddf8f8;"| Totale ongewerwelde spesies: 1 305 075
|-
! colspan=4 | Totale dierspesiesdierespesies: 1 371 253
|}
 
Meer as 95% van alle dierspesiesdierespesies in die wêreld wat beskryf is, is ongewerweldes.
 
== Sien ook ==