Verskil tussen weergawes van "Dier"

4 grepe bygevoeg ,  2 jaar gelede
[[Deuterostomia]] verskil in verskeie opsigte van [[Protostomia]]. Diere van albei groepe het ’n volledige spysverteringstelsel. By laasgenoemde groep ontwikkel die eerste opening wat in die embrio verskyn, in die mond en die tweede opening in die anus. In eersgenoemde groep ontwikkel die openinge andersom.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Peters |first1=Kenneth E. |last2=Walters |first2=Clifford C. |last3=Moldowan |first3=J. Michael |title=The Biomarker Guide: Biomarkers and isotopes in petroleum systems and Earth history |volume=2 |year=2005 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-0-521-83762-0 |page=717}}</ref> By die meeste Protostomia vul selle eenvoudig die binnekant van die [[gastrula]] in om die [[mesoderm]] te vorm, maar by Deuterostomia vorm dit deur die [[invaginasie]] van die [[endoderm]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Safra|first=Jacob E.|title=The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 1; Volume 3|year=2003|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica|isbn=978-0-85229-961-6|page=767}}</ref> Deuterostomia-embrio's ondergaan radiale kliewing (verdeling) en Protostomia spirale kliewing.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Valentine|first=James W.|date=July 1997|title=Cleavage patterns and the topology of the metazoan tree of life|journal=PNAS|publisher=The National Academy of Sciences|volume=94|pages=8001–8005|bibcode = 1997PNAS...94.8001V |doi = 10.1073/pnas.94.15.8001|pmid=9223303|pmc=21545|issue=15}}</ref>
 
Dit alles dui daarop dat Deuterostomia en Protostomia twee aparte, monofiletiese stambome is. Die belangrikste filums van Deuterostomia is [[Echinodermata]] en [[Chordata]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Hyde|first=Kenneth|title=Zoology: An Inside View of Animals|year=2004|publisher=Kendall Hunt|isbn=978-0-7575-0997-1|page=345}}</ref> Eersgenoemde is radiaal simmetries en uitsluitlik seediere, soos [[seester]]re, [[seekastaiings]] en seekomkommers[[seekomkommer]]s.<ref>{{cite book|last=Alcamo|first=Edward|title=Biology Coloring Workbook|year=1998|publisher=The Princeton Review|isbn=978-0-679-77884-4|page=220}}</ref> Chordata word deur die [[gewerweldes]], diere met rugstringe, oorheers.<ref>{{cite book|last=Holmes|first=Thom|title=The First Vertebrates|page=64|publisher=Infobase Publishing|year=2008|isbn=978-0-8160-5958-4}}</ref> Dit sluit in [[vis]]se, [[amfibie|amfibieë]], [[reptiel]]e, [[voël]]s en [[soogdier]]e.<ref>{{cite book|last=Rice|first=Stanley A.|title=Encyclopedia of evolution|publisher=Infobase Publishing|year=2007|page=75|isbn=978-0-8160-5515-9}}</ref>
 
Deuterostomia sluit ook [[Hemichordata]], of die kraagdraers, in.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Tobin |first1=Allan J.|last2=Dusheck |first2=Jennie |title=Asking about life |year=2005 |publisher=Cengage Learning |isbn=978-0-534-40653-0 |page=497}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = Hemichordate genomes and deuterostome origins|url = http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v527/n7579/full/nature16150.html|journal = Nature|date = 26 November 2015|issn = 0028-0836|pages = 459–465|volume = 527|issue = 7579|doi = 10.1038/nature16150|first = Oleg|last = Simakov|first2 = Takeshi|last2 = Kawashima|first3 = Ferdinand|last3 = Marlétaz|first4 = Jerry|last4 = Jenkins|first5 = Ryo|last5 = Koyanagi|first6 = Therese|last6 = Mitros|first7 = Kanako|last7 = Hisata|first8 = Jessen|last8 = Bredeson|first9 = Eiichi|last9 = Shoguchi|pmid=26580012|pmc=4729200|bibcode = 2015Natur.527..459S}}</ref> Hoewel hulle nie vandag juis volop is nie, behoort die belangrike fossiele [[graptoliet]]e dalk tot hierdie groep.<ref>{{cite book|last=Safra|first=Jacob E.|title=The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 19|year=2003|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica|isbn=978-0-85229-961-6|page=791}}</ref>