Verskil tussen weergawes van "Menopouse"

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'''Menopouse''', ook bekend as die '''klimakterium''', is die tyd in die meeste vroue se lewe wanneer hul [[maandstonde]] permanent ophou en hulle nie meer vrugbaar is nie.<ref name=NIH2013Def>{{cite web|title=Menopause: Overview|url=http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/Pages/default.aspx|publisher=Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|accessdate=8 Maart 2015|date=2013-06-28|url-status-=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402111845/http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/Pages/default.aspx|archivedate=2 April 2015|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref name=PubMed2013>{{cite web|title=Menopause: Overview|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0072495/|publisher=PubMedHealth|accessdate=8 Maart 2015|date=29 Augustus 2013|url-status-=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170910181404/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0072495/|archivedate=10 September 2017|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Dit kom gewoonlik op 49- tot 52-jarige ouderdom voor.<ref name=Tak2015>{{cite journal|last1=Takahashi|first1=TA|last2=Johnson|first2=KM|title=Menopause.|journal=The Medical clinics of North America|date=Mei 2015|volume=99|issue=3|pages=521–34|pmid=25841598|doi=10.1016/j.mcna.2015.01.006}}</ref>
 
Medici meen gewoonlik die menopouse het begin as ’n vrou ’n jaar lank geen [[Vagina|vaginale]] bloeding gehad het nie.<ref name=NIH2013Con>{{cite web|title=What is menopause?|url=http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/conditioninfo/Pages/default.aspx|publisher=Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|accessdate=8 Maart 2015|date=2013-06-28|url-status-=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150319224154/http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/conditioninfo/Pages/default.aspx|archivedate=19 Maart 2015|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Dit kan ook aangedui word deur ’n afname in [[hormoon]]vervaardiging deur die [[eierstok]]ke.<ref name=Sie2006>{{cite book|last1=Sievert|first1=Lynnette Leidy|title=Menopause : a biocultural perspective|date=2006|publisher=Rutgers University Press|location=New Brunswick, N.J.|isbn=9780813538563|page=81|edition=[Online-Ausg.]|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=fWH606kOGYQC&pg=PA81|url-status-=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170910181403/https://books.google.com/books?id=fWH606kOGYQC&pg=PA81|archivedate=10 September 2017|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Vroue wat chirurgie ondergaan het om hul baarmoeder te verwyder maar steeds eierstokke het, se menopouse begin op die tydstip van die chirurgie of wanneer hul hormoonvlakke daal.<ref name=Sie2006/>
 
== Simptome en oorsake ==
Voor die menopouse word die vrou se maandstondes gewoonlik ongereeld,<ref name=NIH2013Sym/> wat beteken dit kan langer of korter aanhou, of daar kan minder of meer bloed wees.<ref name=NIH2013Sym/> In dié tyd ondervind vroue gewoonlik warm gloede; dit duur meestal tussen 30 sekondes en 10 minute en kan gepaardgaan met rillings, sweet en ’n rooierige vel.<ref name=NIH2013Sym/> Dit hou normaalweg ná ’n jaar of twee op.<ref name=PubMed2013/> Ander simptome kan insluit vaginale droogheid, gemoedsveranderings en ’n gesukkel om te slaap.<ref name=NIH2013Sym>{{cite web|title=What are the symptoms of menopause?|url=http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/conditioninfo/Pages/symptoms.aspx|publisher=Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|accessdate=8 Maart 2015|date=6 Mei 2013|url-status-=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150320015025/http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/conditioninfo/Pages/symptoms.aspx|archivedate=20 Maart 2015|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Die intensiteit van die simptome verskil van vrou tot vrou.
 
Menopouse is gewoonlik ’n natuurlike verandering.<ref name=NIH2013Ca>{{cite web|title=What causes menopause?|url=http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/conditioninfo/Pages/causes.aspx|publisher=Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|accessdate=8 Maart 2015|date=6 Mei 2013|url-status-=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402091652/http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/conditioninfo/Pages/causes.aspx|archivedate=2 April 2015|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Rokers kan dit vroeër ondervind.<ref name=NIH2013Con/><ref>{{cite book|last1=Warren|first1=volume editors, Claudio N. Soares, Michelle|title=The menopausal transition : interface between gynecology and psychiatry|date=2009|publisher=Karger|location=Basel|isbn=978-3805591010|page=73|edition=[Online-Ausg.]}}</ref> Ander oorsake sluit in chirurgie om albei eierstokke te verwyder of sekere soorte [[chemoterapie]].<ref name=NIH2013Con/>
 
Op ’n fisiologiese vlak kom menopouse voor vanweë ’n afname in die eierstokke se vervaardiging van die hormone [[estrogeen]] en [[progesteroon]].<ref name=NIH2013Def/> Hoewel dit meestal nie nodig is nie, kan menopouse gediagnoseer word deur die hormoonvlakke in die [[bloed]] of [[urine]] te meet.<ref>{{cite web |title=How do health care providers diagnose menopause? |url=http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/conditioninfo/Pages/diagnosed.aspx |publisher=Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development |accessdate=8 Maart 2015 |date=6 Mei 2013 |url-status-=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402143650/http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/conditioninfo/Pages/diagnosed.aspx |archivedate=2 April 2015 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>
 
== Behandeling ==
Spesifieke behandeling is dikwels nie nodig nie.<ref name=NIH2013Tx>{{cite web|title=What are the treatments for other symptoms of menopause?|url=http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/conditioninfo/Pages/treatments.aspx|publisher=Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|accessdate=8 Maart 2015|date=2013-06-28|url-status-=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150320030632/http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menopause/conditioninfo/Pages/treatments.aspx|archivedate=20 March 2015|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Sommige simptome kan egter met behandeling afneem.<ref name=NIH2013Tx/> Wat warm gloede betref, help dit om [[Sigaret|rook]], [[kafeïen]] en [[alkohol]] te vermy.<ref name=NIH2013Tx/> ’n Koel slaapkamer en om met ’n waaier aan te slaap, kan ook help.<ref name=NIH2013Tx/> Daar is ook [[medisyne]] wat die simptome kan verlig.<ref name=NIH2013Tx/><ref name=Kra2015>{{cite journal|last1=Krause|first1=MS|last2=Nakajima|first2=ST|title=Hormonal and Nonhormonal Treatment of Vasomotor Symptoms.|journal=Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America|date=March 2015|volume=42|issue=1|pages=163–179|pmid=25681847|doi=10.1016/j.ogc.2014.09.008}}</ref>
 
Oefening kan help teen slaapprobleme.<ref name=NIH2013Tx/>
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