Verskil tussen weergawes van "Seks"

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Ook gay en lesbiese pare kan van kunsmatige bevrugting gebruik maak. Soms verkies gay mans om ’n [[surrogaatma]] te gebruik; lesbiërs kan kies tussen skenkerinseminasie of ’n surrogaatma.<ref name="Berkowitz">{{cite journal |vauthors=Berkowitz D, Marsiglio W | year = 2007 | title = Gay Men: Negotiating Procreative, Father, and Family Identities | url = | journal = Journal of Marriage and Family | volume = 69 | issue = 2| pages = 366–381 | doi = 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2007.00371.x }}</ref><ref name="Burda">{{Cite book| author = Joan M. Burda| title = Gay, lesbian, and transgender clients: a lawyer's guide | publisher = American Bar Association| year = 2008 |pages =69–74| isbn = 978-1-59031-944-4|accessdate=28 Julie 2011|url=https://books.google.com/?id=QdzB1f8Y8Q8C&pg=PA69}}</ref>
 
===Veilige seks en geboortebeperking===
Daar is verskeie maniere waarop veilige seks deur hetero- en homoseksuele paartjies beoefen kan word, insluitende niepenetrerende seks,<ref name="Kumar">{{Cite book|author=Bhushan Kumar|author2=Somesh Gupta|title=Sexually Transmitted Infections| publisher = Elsevier Health Sciences|year = 2014|isbn = 978-8131229781}}</ref><ref name="Durham">{{cite book|title=The Person With HIV/AIDS: Nursing Perspectives|edition=3de|isbn = 978-8122300048|publisher=Springer Publishing Company|year=2000|page=103|accessdate=29 Januarie 2012|url=https://books.google.com/?id=WSCQ4L8kSXsC&pg=PA103|author1=Jerry D. Durham |author2=Felissa R. Lashley }}</ref> en heteroseksuele paartjies kan orale en anale seks gebruik as ’n manier van geboortebeperking.<ref name="Crooks">{{cite book | title = Our Sexuality | publisher = Cengage Learning | year = 2010 | pages = 286–289 | accessdate = 30 Augustus 2012 |isbn = 978-0495812944| url = https://books.google.com/?id=MpRnPtmdRVwC&pg=PA286&lpg=PA286 |author1=Robert Crooks |author2=Karla Baur }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |vauthors=Feldmann J, Middleman AB | title = Adolescent sexuality and sexual behavior | journal = Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology | volume = 14 | issue = 5 | pages = 489–493 | year = 2002 | pmid = 12401976 | url = http://journals.lww.com/co-obgyn/Abstract/2002/10000/Adolescent_sexuality_and_sexual_behavior.8.aspx | doi=10.1097/00001703-200210000-00008}}</ref> Swangerskap kan egter steeds met anale en ander vorme van seks voorkom as die penis naby die vagina kom en die sperma naby die ingang tot die vagina beland; daar is ook die risiko van bevrugting al is die penis nie naby die vagina nie, want sperma kan na die opening van die vagina oorgedra word deurdat die vagina in aanraking kom met vingers of ander niegenitale liggaamsdele wat in kontak met semen was.<ref>{{cite book|last=Thomas|first=R. Murray|title=Sex and the American teenager seeing through the myths and confronting the issues|year=2009|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield Education|location=Lanham, Md.|isbn=9781607090182|page=81|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=gM9EFgsJHyoC&pg=PA81|accessdate=21 Oktober 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Edlin|first=Gordon|title=Health & Wellness.|year=2012|publisher=Jones & Bartlett Learning|isbn=9781449636470|page=213|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=csGk6j5rlN0C&pg=PA213|accessdate=21 Oktober 2015}}</ref>
 
[[Kondoom|Kondome]] kan ook gebruik word as ’n vorm van veilige seks en geboortebeperking. Dit word algemeen aanbeveel vir die voorkoming van seksueel oordraagbare siektes.<ref name="Who"/><ref name="Mercer">{{cite journal |vauthors=Chin HB, Sipe TA, Elder R, Mercer SL, Chattopadhyay SK, Jacob V, Wethington HR, Kirby D, Elliston DB, Griffith M, Chuke SO, Briss SC, Ericksen I, Galbraith JS, Herbst JH, Johnson RL, Kraft JM, Noar SM, Romero LM, Santelli J | title = The Effectiveness of Group-Based Comprehensive Risk-Reduction and Abstinence Education Interventions to Prevent or Reduce the Risk of Adolescent Pregnancy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Sexually Transmitted Infections | journal = American Journal of Preventive Medicine | volume = 42 | issue = 3 | pages = 272–294 | year = 2012 | pmid = 22341164 | pmc = | doi = 10.1016/j.amepre.2011.11.006 | url = http://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(11)00906-8/abstract }}</ref> Volgens verslae van die Amerikaanse Nasionale Gesondheidsinstitute en die WGO verlaag die korrekte en volgehoue gebruik van latekskondome die risiko van die oordrag van [[MIV]]/[[vigs]] met sowat 85-99% in verhouding met wanneer seks sonder beskerming beoefen word.<ref>{{cite conference|author=National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases |author2=National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services |title=Workshop Summary: Scientific Evidence on Condom Effectiveness for Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention |pages=13–15 |date=20 Julie 2001 |location=Hyatt Dulles Airport, Herndon, Virginië |url=http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/about/organization/dmid/PDF/condomReport.pdf |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100307132024/http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/about/organization/dmid/PDF/condomReport.pdf |archivedate=7 Maart 2010 |format=PDF |accessdate=20 Maart 2009 |df= }}</ref><ref name="WHO condoms">{{cite web|title=Effectiveness of male latex condoms in protecting against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections|publisher=World Health Organization|year=2000|accessdate=23 Julie 2013|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs243/en/index.html|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100509064325/http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs243/en/index.html |archivedate=9 Mei 2010 }}</ref> Kondome word selde vir orale seks gebruik en daar is min navorsing daaroor.<ref name="Kumar 2">{{cite book|title=Sexually Transmitted Infections E book| author = Bhushan Kumar, Somesh Gupta| publisher = Elsevier Health Sciences | year = 2014 | page = 122 |isbn = 8131229785| url =https://www.google.com/books/edition/Sexually_Transmitted_Infections_E_book/kQ9tAwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=PA122}}</ref> Die doeltreffendste manier om seksueel oordraagbare infeksies te vermy is om ’n mens te onthou van seks, veral vaginale, anale en orale seks.<ref name="Mercer"/>
 
Besluite en opsies aangaande geboortebeperking kan deur kulturele, genderrol-, [[folklore]]- en godsdienstige oorwegings beïnvloed word.<ref name="Hales2">{{cite book | title = An Invitation to Health: Choosing to Change| publisher = Cengage Learning| year = 2010 | pages = 301–302| accessdate = 30 Maart 2013 |isbn = 978-0538736558| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=yPa0LZXizO4C&pg=PA301 | author = Dianne Hales}}</ref> In die oorwegend [[Rooms-Katolieke Kerk|Katolieke]] lande [[Ierland]], [[Italië]] en die [[Filippyne]] word klem gelê op vrugbaarheidsbewustheid en die [[ritmemetode]], terwyl ander geboortebeperkingsmetodes afgekeur word.<ref name="Hales">{{Cite book|author=Dianne Hales|title=An Invitation to Health Brief 2010–2011| publisher = Cengage Learning|year = 2008|accessdate=29 Augustus 2013|pages =269–271| isbn = 978-0495391920|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=oP91HVIMPRIC&pg=PA269}}</ref> Wêreldwyd is [[sterilisasie]] ’n algemener manier van geboortebeperking,<ref name="Hales"/> terwyl die gebruik van die [[intra-uteriene apparaat]] (IUA) ’n algemene vorm van omkeerbare geboortebeperking is.<ref name="Hales"/><ref name=Winner2012>{{cite journal |vauthors=Winner B, Peipert JF, Zhao Q, Buckel C, Madden T, Allsworth JE, Secura GM | title = Effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception | journal = N. Engl. J. Med. | volume = 366 | issue = 21 | pages = 1998–2007 | year = 2012 | pmid = 22621627 | doi = 10.1056/NEJMoa1110855 }}</ref>
 
Bevrugting en geboortebeperking is veral ’n saak van lewe en dood in [[ontwikkelende land]]e, waar een uit elke drie voue voor 20 ’n kind kry; 90% van onveilige [[aborsie]]s in hierdie lande kan voorkom word deur doeltreffende geboortebeperking.<ref name="Hales"/>
 
== Verwysings ==