Verskil tussen weergawes van "Seks"

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Uitgebrei, nog besig
(Uitgebrei, nog besig)
Hoewel seksuele omgang, as koïtus, die natuurlike metode van voortplanting by die mens is, het mense ingewikkelde morele en etiese riglyne wat die beoefening daarvan reguleer. Dit verskil volgens [[godsdiens]]tige en [[Reg|landswette]]. Sommige regerings en godsdienste het ook streng aanduidings van "paslike" en "onpaslike" seksuele gedrag, wat insluit beperkings op soorte seks wat toelaatbaar is.
 
===Seksuele misdadeRegsaspekte===
====Seksuele misdade====
Seks met iemand teen sy of haar wil, of sonder instemming, is [[verkragting]], maar kan ook "seksuele aanranding" genoem word; dit word in die meeste lande as ’n ernstige [[misdaad]] beskou.<ref name="Sex and Society">{{cite book|author=Marshall Cavendish Corporation | title = Sex and Society | publisher = Marshall Cavendish Corporation | year = 2010 | pages = 143–144 | accessdate = 25 Augustus 2013|isbn = 978-0-7614-7906-2|url =https://books.google.com/books?id=aVDZchwkIMEC&lpg=PA143}}</ref><ref name="Greenberg2">{{cite book|author=Jerrold S. Greenberg|author2=Clint E. Bruess|author3=Sarah C. Conklin| title = Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality| publisher = Jones & Bartlett Learning | year = 2010 | page = 515 | accessdate = 25 Augustus 2013|isbn = 978-0-7637-7660-2|url =https://books.google.com/books?id=1NC5R0RozBYC&lpg=PA515}}</ref> Meer as 90% van verkragtingslagoffers is vroue, 99% van verkragters is mans en net 5% van verkragters is vreemdelinge vir hulle slagoffers.<ref name="Greenberg2"/>
 
 
Daar is gewoonlik ook wette teen [[bloedskande]], of seks met ’n nabye familielid, selfs al gee albei partye toestemming.<ref>{{citation|doi=10.1093/hrlr/ngu023|title=Roffee, J. A. (2014). No Consensus on Incest? Criminalisation and Compatibility with the European Convention on Human Rights}}.</ref> Nog algemeen verbode seksdade is [[bestialiteit]] en [[nekrofilie]].<ref name="DSM">{{cite book |title=Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV | publisher = American Psychiatric Association |location=Washington, D.C. |year=2000 |pages= |isbn=978-0-89042-025-6 |oclc= |doi=}}</ref><ref name="Milner2008">{{cite book |veditors = Laws DR, O'Donohue WT |last-author-amp = yes | last = Milner | first = JS |author2=Dopke CA | title = Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment | publisher = The Guilford Press | location = New York | year = 2008 | pages = [https://books.google.com/books?id=yIXG9FuqbaIC&pg=PA385 384–418] |isbn=978-1-59385-605-2 |oclc= |doi=| chapter = Paraphilia Not Otherwise Specified: Psychopathology and theory}}</ref><ref name="Seto2000">{{cite book |editor = Hersen M |editor2 = Van Hasselt VB | title = Aggression and violence: an introductory text |publisher= Allyn & Bacon |location=Boston |year=2000 |pages= 198–213 |isbn=978-0-205-26721-7 |oclc= |doi=| last = Seto| first = MC|author2=Barbaree HE | chapter = Paraphilias}}</ref>
 
====Huwelike en verhoudings====
[[Beeld:Lawrence Alma-Tadema Courtship - The Proposal.jpg|thumb|220px|Lawrence Alma-Tadema se uitbeelding van 'n hofmakery en huweliksaansoek.]]
Seksuele omgang word tradisioneel beskou as ’n noodsaaklike deel van die huwelik, met baie godsdienstige gebruike wat die [[volvoering]] van die huwelik vereis en die huwelik verklaar as die paslikste eenheid vir seksuele voortplanting.<ref name="Hogan">{{cite book| author =Margaret Monahan Hogan|title =Marriage as a Relationship: Real and Rational|publisher = Marquette University Press | year = 2002 | page = 88 | accessdate = 1 September 2015 |isbn = 978-0874626575| url =https://books.google.com/books?id=HuztAAAAMAAJ&q=Marriage+as+a+Relationship:+Real+and+Rational}}</ref> In sulke gevalle word enige rede wat aanleiding daartoe gee dat die huwelik nie volvoer word nie, beskou as ’n rede vir die [[nietigverklaring]] daarvan (wat nie ’n egskeidingsprosedure vereis nie). Seks tussen huweliksmaats word in verskeie gemeenskappe en godsdienste as ’n "huweliksreg" beskou, in historiese én moderne tye, veral wat betref die man se regte met sy vrou.<ref name="Dwyer">{{cite book| author =James G. Dwyer|title =Religious Schools V. Children's Rights|publisher = Cornell University Press | year = 2001 | pages = 72–73 | accessdate = 31 Augustus 2015 |isbn = 978-0801487316| url =https://books.google.com/books?id=QDwD4huqyysC&pg=PA72}}</ref><ref name="Green">{{cite book| author =Ronald Green|title =Religion and Sexual Health: Ethical, Theological, and Clinical Perspectives, Volume 1 of Theology and Medicine|publisher = Springer Science & Business Media | year = 2013 | page = 112 | accessdate = 31 Augustus 2015 |isbn = 978-9401579636| url =https://books.google.com/books?id=h2mvBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT112}}</ref><ref name="Brook">{{cite book| author =Heather Brook|title = Conjugality: Marriage and Marriage-like Relationships Before the Law|publisher = Palgrave Macmillan | year = 2015 | pages = 71–73 | accessdate = 31 Augustus 2015 |isbn = 978-1137480910| url =https://books.google.com/books?id=rP2_CQAAQBAJ&pg=PA71}}</ref> Tot laat in die 20ste eeu was daar gewoonlik ’n klousule wat die man uitgesluit het van vervolging weens verkragting as hy sy vrou gedwing het om seks te hê.<ref name="Steinmetz">{{cite book| author =Suzanne K. Steinmetz| author2 =Marvin B. Sussman|title = Handbook of Marriage and the Family|publisher = Springer Science & Business Media | year = 2013 | pages = 787–788 | accessdate = 31 Augustus 2014 |isbn = 978-1461571513| url =https://books.google.com/books?id=T6XwBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA787}}</ref> Volgens die skrywer 'lai Oshitokunbo Oshisanya het die konsep van huweliksregte algemeen afgeneem namate die wetlike status van vroue verander het.<ref name="Oshitokunbo">{{cite book| author =Oshisanya, 'lai Oshitokunbo|title = An Almanac of Contemporary Judicial Restatements (Criminal & Quasi Criminal Law & Procedure) vol. iii: Almanac vol. iii|publisher = Almanac Foundation | year = 2015 | page = 132 | accessdate = 31 Augustus 2015 |isbn = 978-9785120035| url =https://books.google.com/books?id=fsDOBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA132}}</ref>
 
[[Owerspel]] (seks met ’n persoon wat nie jou huweliksmaat is nie) is in sommige regsgebiede steeds ’n misdaad.<ref name="Brundage">{{cite book| author =James A. Brundage|title =Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe|publisher = University of Chicago Press | year = 2009 | pages = 609–611 | accessdate = 31 Augustus 2015 |isbn = 978-0226077895| url =https://books.google.com/books?id=SiGe-Zf0nTIC&pg=PA609}}</ref><ref name="Carlan">{{cite book| author =Philip Carlan| author2 =Lisa S. Nored| author3 =Ragan A. Downey|title =An Introduction to Criminal Law|publisher = Jones & Bartlett Publishers | year = 2011 | page = 139 | accessdate = 31 Augustus 2015 |isbn = 978-1449647216| url =https://books.google.com/books?id=8-tPwZyNWzkC&pg=PA139}}</ref> Seksuele omgang tussen ongetroude mense en die saamwoon van ’n ongetroude paartjie is ook in sommige regsgebiede onwettig.<ref name="BBC News">{{cite news|title = Can Iran 'control' its cohabiting couples?|date = December 10, 2014|accessdate=31 Augustus 2015|work = BBC News |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-30391593}}</ref><ref name="amnesty.org">{{cite web|title =Amnesty International Report 2014/15|date = 2014|accessdate=31 Augustus 2015|publisher = amnesty.org |url=https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/middle-east-and-north-africa/morocco/report-morocco/}}</ref>
 
In sommige ander lande word die huwelik nie sosiaal of wetlik vereis vir seksuele omgang of voortplanting nie. (In sommige lande soos [[Ysland]], [[Noorweë]], [[Swede]], [[Denemarke]], [[Bulgarye]], [[Estland]], [[Slowenië]], [[Frankryk]] en [[België]] vind die meeste geboortes buite die huwelik plaas.)<ref name="europa.eu">{{cite web|title =Share of live births outside marriage|date = 2 Maart 2015|accessdate=31 Augustus 2015|publisher = europa.eu |url=http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&plugin=1&language=en&pcode=tps00018}}</ref> Wat egskeidingswette betref, kan ’n weiering om seks met ’n huweliksmaats te hê rede wees vir ’n egskeiding.<ref name=Choudhri>{{cite book| author =Choudhri, Nihara K|title =The complete guide to divorce law|publisher = New York: Citadel Press | year = 2004 | pages = 8–9 | accessdate = 30 Augustus 2015 |isbn = 978-0-8065-2528-0| url =https://books.google.com/books?id=5cLIO2yUA4gC&pg=PA8}}</ref>
 
In sommige lande is seks tussen mense van dieselfde geslag strafbaar met tronkstraf of teregstelling; dit is byvoorbeeld die geval in sommige [[Islam]]itiese lande, soos [[Iran]].<ref>Janet Afary. Sexual Politics in Modern Iran. (2009) Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|0-521-89846-3}}</ref><ref name="amnesty.org2">{{cite web|title=PUBLIC AI Index: MDE 13/010/2008. UA 17/08 Fear of imminent execution/ flogging|publisher=Amnesty International|accessdate=22 Desember 2013|url=http://www2.amnesty.se/uaonnet.nsf/dfab8d7f58eec102c1257011006466e1/fd0b99f84da0da71c12573d7003a87a5?OpenDocument&Click=|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160305004923/http://www2.amnesty.se/uaonnet.nsf/dfab8d7f58eec102c1257011006466e1/fd0b99f84da0da71c12573d7003a87a5?OpenDocument&Click=|archivedate=5 Maart 2016|df=mdy-all}}</ref> Teenstand teen [[selfdegeslaghuwelik]]e is grootliks geskoei op die geloof dat seksuele omgang en oriëntasie heteroseksueel van aard moet wees.<ref name="Cahn and Carbone">{{Cite book|author1=Naomi R. Cahn |author2=June Carbone |title = Red families v. blue families: legal polarization and the creation of culture | publisher = Oxford University Press US| year = 2010 |page =129| isbn = 978-0-19-537217-5|accessdate=29 Julie 2011|url=https://books.google.com/?id=F6eeGny49J4C&pg=PA129}}</ref><ref name="Cantor">{{Cite book| author =Donald J. Cantor|title =Same-sex marriage: the legal and psychological evolution in America| publisher = Wesleyan University Press| year = 2006 |pages =1–191| isbn = 978-0-8195-6812-0|accessdate=29 Julie 2011|url=https://books.google.com/?id=lydHmmrHB8QC}}</ref><ref name="psychological">{{cite web|title=Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Marriage |author=American Psychological Association |year=2004| accessdate=1 September 2015 |url=http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/task-force/military-deployment.pdf}}</ref> Die erkenning van sulke huwelike is in baie lande ’n [[menseregte]]-, [[politiek]]e, sosiale, morele en godsdienstige kwessie. Die konflik gaan gewoonlik daaroor of paartjies van dieselfde geslag toegelaat behoort te word om ’n huwelik aan te gaan, ’n ander status moet gebruik soos ’n [[burgerlike verbintenis]] (met óf dieselfde regte as ’n huwelik óf beperkte regte) of nie so ’n reg moet hê nie.<ref name="Cantor"/><ref name="psychological"/>
 
In November 2006 het die [[Parlement van Suid-Afrika]] die Wetsontwerp op Burgerlike Verbintenisse 230-41 goedgekeur waardeur die regtelike instrument van 'n "vrywillige verbintenis van twee persone" geskep is wat "deur óf 'n huwelik óf 'n burgerlike verbintenis voltrek en geregistreer word". Die wet spesifiseer nie of die verbintenis of huwelik tussen heteroseksuele of homoseksuele persone aangegaan word nie.<ref>{{en}}''[https://pridelegal.com/laws-za-htm/ PrideLegal.com: Huwelik en burgerlike verbintenis]''</ref>
 
== Verwysings ==