Verskil tussen weergawes van "Dier"

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Robot: standardisering van verwysingsjablone en invoeging van argiefskakels. Ondersteun: shorturl.at/klqM2
k (Robot: standardisering van verwysingsjablone en invoeging van argiefskakels. Ondersteun: shorturl.at/klqM2)
 
== Eienskappe ==
Diere het verskeie eienskappe wat hulle van ander lewensvorme onderskei. Hulle is eukarioties en meersellig,<ref name=NationalZoo>{{cite web |url=http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/GiantPandas/PandasForKids/classification/classification.htm |title=Panda Classroom |accessdateaccess-date=30 September 2007 |archiveurllanguage=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/2007092909493620130813232133/http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/GiantPandas/PandasForKids/classification/classification.htm |archivedatearchive-date=2913 SeptemberAugustus 20072013 |url-status=livedead|df=dmy-all}}</ref> wat hulle onderskei van [[Bakterie|bakterieë]] en die meeste [[Protista]]-organismes. Hulle is heterotrofies (verorber ander organismes vir voeding)<ref name=Windows>{{cite web |last=Bergman |first=Jennifer |title=Heterotrophs |url=http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Life/heterotrophs.html&edu=high |accessdate=30 September 2007 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070829051950/http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Life/heterotrophs.html&edu=high |archivedate=29 Augustus 2007 |url-status=live}}</ref> en verteer kos gewoonlik in ’n interne kamer, wat hulle onderskei van plante en [[alg]]e.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Douglas |first1=Angela E. |last2=Raven |first2=John A. |title=Genomes at the interface between bacteria and organelles |journal=Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B |volume=358 |issue=1429 |pages=5–17; discussion 517–8 |date=Januarie 2003 |pmid=12594915 |pmc=1693093 |doi=10.1098/rstb.2002.1188}}</ref> Hulle verskil ook van plante, alge en [[swam]]me deurdat hulle nie rigiede selwande het nie.<ref name=AnimalCells>{{cite web |last=Davidson |first=Michael W. |title=Animal Cell Structure |url=http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animalcell.html |accessdateaccess-date=20 September 2007 |archiveurllanguage=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/2007092023592420200502015236/httphttps://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animalcell.html |archivedatearchive-date=202 SeptemberMei 20072020 |url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
Alle diere is beweeglik,<ref name=Concepts>{{cite web |url=http://employees.csbsju.edu/SSAUPE/biol116/Zoology/digestion.htm |last=Saupe |first=S. G. |title=Concepts of Biology |accessdateaccess-date=30 September 2007 |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200428192710/http://employees.csbsju.edu/SSAUPE/biol116/Zoology/digestion.htm |archive-date=28 April 2020 |url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>al is dit net in sekere lewenstadiums. By die meeste gaan [[Embrio|embrio's]] deur ’n [[blastula]]stadium<ref>{{cite book |last=Minkoff |first=Eli C. |title=Barron's EZ-101 Study Keys Series: Biology |year=2008 |publisher=Barron's Educational Series |isbn=978-0-7641-3920-8 |edition=2nd, revised |page=48}}</ref> (’n kiemblasiestadium wanneer die embrio die vorm het van 'n sfeer waarvan die wand uit een sellaag bestaan),<ref>WAT aanlyn, VivA (intekening benodig)</ref> ’n eienskap wat eie aan diere is.
 
=== Struktuur ===
 
== Oorsprong en fossielrekord ==
[[Lêer:Dunkleosteus BW.jpg|duimnael|''[[Dunkleosteus]]'' was ’n 10&nbsp;m lange [[Voorgeskiedenis|prehistoriese]] [[vis]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/science/jaws-of-steel-on-this-fish-tank/2006/11/29/1164777657728.html |title=Monster fish crushed opposition with strongest bite ever |publisher=smh.com.au |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171215221246/http://www.smh.com.au/news/science/jaws-of-steel-on-this-fish-tank/2006/11/29/1164777657728.html |archive-date=15 Desember 2017 |url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>]]
 
Daar word algemeen geglo diere het binne die groep [[eukariote]] met [[Sweepdiertjie|sweephare]] (flagella) ontstaan.<ref>{{cite book|last=Campbell|first=Niel A.|title=Biology|year=1990|publisher=Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co.|isbn=978-0-8053-1800-5|edition=2nd|page=560}}</ref> Hul naaste bekende verwante wat steeds bestaan, is die [[Choanoflagellatea]] (kraagsweepdiertjies) waarvan die morfologie ooreenstem met dié van die koanosiete (kraagselle) van sekere [[spons]]e.<ref>{{cite book|title=Emerging model organisms: a laboratory manual, Volume 1|year=2008|publisher=Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press|isbn=978-0-87969-872-0|page=1|edition=illustrated|editor=Richard R. Behringer |editor2=Alexander D. Johnson |editor3=Robert E. Krumlauf |editor4=Michael K. Levine |editor5=Nipam Patel |editor6=Neelima Sinha}}</ref>
Sommige paleontoloë dink diere het lank voor die Kambriese ontploffing ontstaan, dalk reeds ’n miljard jaar gelede.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Campbell |first1=Neil A. |last2=Reece |first2=Jane B. |title=Biology |year=2005 |publisher=Pearson, Benjamin Cummings |isbn=978-0-8053-7171-0 |edition=7de |page=526}}</ref> Spoorfossiele soos voetspore en gate uit die [[Proterosoïkum|Tonium]]-periode wat ontdek is, dui op die moontlike teenwoordigheid van tripoblastiese wurms (met drie kiemlae), omtrent so groot (sowat 5&nbsp;mm breed) en kompleks soos erdwurms.<ref name=Seilacher1998>{{cite journal |last1=Seilacher |first1=Adolf |last2=Bose |first2=Pradip K. |last3=Pfluger |first3=Friedrich |title=Triploblastic animals more than 1 billion years ago: trace fossil evidence from india |journal=Science |volume=282 |pages=80–83 |date=2 October 1998 |doi=10.1126/science.282.5386.80 |pmid=9756480 |issue=5386 |bibcode=1998Sci...282...80S}}</ref>
 
Aan die begin van die Tonium sowat ’n miljard jaar gelede was daar ’n afname in die verskeidenheid van [[stromatoliet]]e, wat dalk daarop dui dat weidiere hul verskyning gemaak het aangesien stromatoliet-verskeidenheid toegeneem het nadat weidiere uitgesterf het met die [[Perm-Trias-uitwissing|Perm-Trias-]] en die [[Ordovisium-Siluur-uitwissing]]. Dit het weer afgeneem kort nadat die weidierbevolking herstel het. Die ontdekking dat soortgelyke spore vandag geskep word deur die reusagtige, eensellige protis ''Gromia sphaerica'', werp egter ’n skadu oor die vertolking van die fossiele as bewyse van ’n vroeë evolusie van diere.<ref name=Matz2008>{{cite journal |last1=Matz |first1=Mikhail V. | last2=Frank |first2=Tamara M. |last3=Marshall |first3=N. Justin |last4=Widder |first4=Edith A. |last5=Johnsen |first5=Sönke |title=Giant Deep-Sea Protist Produces Bilaterian-like Traces |journal=Current Biology |volume=18 |issue=23 |pages=1–6 |date=9 December 2008| url=http://www.biology.duke.edu/johnsenlab/pdfs/pubs/sea%20grapes%202008.pdf |doi=10.1016/j.cub.2008.10.028 |accessdate=2008-12-05 |pmid=19026540 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20081216211211/http://www.biology.duke.edu/johnsenlab/pdfs/pubs/sea%20grapes%202008.pdf |archivedate=16 Desember 2008 |url-status=live}}</ref><ref name=MSNBC200811>{{cite news |last=Reilly |first=Michael |title=Single-celled giant upends early evolution |publisher=MSNBC |date=20 November 2008 |url=http://www.nbcnews.com/id/27827279/ |accessdateaccess-date=5 Desember 2008 |language=en |archive-12url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190424155233/http://www.nbcnews.com/id/27827279/ |archive-date=24 April 2019 |url-status=live|df=dmy-05all}}</ref>
 
== Groepe diere ==
Lophotrochozoa sluit ook Nemertea, of die snoerwurms, Sipuncula en verskeie filums in wat ’n sirkel tentakels met trilhare om die mond het.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Collins |first=Allen G. |title=The Lophophore |url=http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss7/lophophore.html |year=1995 |publisher=University of California Museum of Paleontology |accessdate=2015-03-23}}</ref>
 
[[Platyzoa]] sluit die filum [[Platyhelminth]], of die platwurms, in.<ref name="Gilson">{{cite book|last=Gilson|first=Étienne|title=El espíritu de la filosofía medieval|year=2004|publisher=Ediciones Rialp|isbn=978-84-321-3492-0|page=384}}</ref> Hulle is eers as van die mees primitiewe Bilateria beskou, maar dit lyk nou of hulle uit meer komplekse voorouers ontwikkel het.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Ruiz-Trillo |first1=Iñaki |last2=Riutort |first2=Marta |last3=Littlewood |first3=D. Timothy J. |last4=Herniou |first4=Elisabeth A. |last5=Baguña |first5=Jaume |title=Acoel Flatworms: Earliest Extant Bilaterian Metazoans, Not Members of Platyhelminthes |date=19 March 1999 |journal=Science |volume=283 |issue=5409 |pages=1919–1923 |doi=10.1126/science.283.5409.1919 |pmid=10082465 |bibcode=1999Sci...283.1919R}}</ref> Die groep bevat ’n paar parasiete, soos suigwurms and lintwurms.<ref name="Gilson" /> Platwurms het nie ’n seloom of buikholte nie, nes hul naaste verwante, die mikroskopiese Gastrotricha.<ref name="umodena">{{cite web |url=http://www.gastrotricha.unimore.it/overview.htm |title=Gastrotricha: Overview |accessdateaccess-date=2008-01-26 Januarie 2008 |last=Todaro |first=Antonio |work=Gastrotricha: World Portal |publisher=University of Modena & Reggio Emilia |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200428192705/http://www.gastrotricha.unimore.it/overview.htm |archive-date=28 April 2020 |url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Die ander Platyzoa-filums is meestal mikroskopies en het skynbuikholtes. Die belangrikste groep is [[Rotifera]], of die raderdiertjies, wat algemeen in wateromgewings voorkom. Hulle sluit ook Acanthocephala, Gnathostomulida, Micrognathozoa en moontlik Cycliophora in.<ref name="IntroCyclio">{{cite journal |last=Kristensen |first= Reinhardt Møbjerg |date=July 2002 |title=An Introduction to Loricifera, Cycliophora, and Micrognathozoa |journal=Integrative and Comparative Biology |volume=42 |issue=3 |pages=641–651 |doi =10.1093/icb/42.3.641 |pmid=21708760}}</ref> Hierdie groepe het almal komplekse kake en behoort tot die filum Gnathifera.
 
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