Verskil tussen weergawes van "Gewetensbeswaarde"

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'n '''Gewetensbeswaarde''' of '''diensweieraar''' is 'n "individu wat die reg opeis om te weier om militêre diens te doen"<ref>On July 30, 2001, explicit clarification of the [[:en:International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights|International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]] Article 18 was made in the United Nations [[:en:Human Rights Committee|Human Rights Committee]] general comment 22, Para. 11: {{cite web |url=http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/FreedomReligion/Pages/IstandardsI3k.aspx |title=Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief. Framework for communications. Conscientious Objection |publisher=Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights |accessdateaccess-date=7 Mei 2012 |language=en |archive-05url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200106042616/https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/FreedomReligion/Pages/IstandardsI3k.aspx |archive-date=6 Januarie 2020 |url-status=live|df=dmy-07all}}</ref> op grond van sy of haar vryheid van denke, gewete of godsdiens.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CCPR.aspx |title=International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights |accessdateaccess-date=15 Mei 2008 |archive-05url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200512032053/https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CCPR.aspx |archive-15date=12 Mei 2020 |url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
In party lande word gewetensbeswaardes toegedeel vir alternatiewe burgerlike diens as 'n plaasvervanger vir diensplig of militêre diens. Party gewetensbeswaardes beskou hulself as pasifiste, nie-intervensioniste, nie-weerstandbieders, nie-aggressiewes of antimilitariste.
 
Op 8 Maart 1995 het die Verenigde Nasies se Menseregtekommissie in resolusie 1995/83 verklaar: "Mense wat militêre diens doen mag nie uitgesluit wees van die reg om gewetensbeswaar teen militêre diens aan te teken nie.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c22523,4565c25f2c9,3b00f0d220,0.html |title=UN Commission on Human Rights, Conscientious objection to military service., 8 March 1995, E/CN.4/RES/1995/83 (See point #2) |author=UN Commission on Human Rights |date=8 Maart 1995 |work= |publisher=UN Commission on Human Rights |accessdateaccess-date=2 Desember 2009 |language=en |archive-12url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190503014210/https://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c22523,4565c25f2c9,3b00f0d220,0.html |archive-02date=3 Mei 2019 |url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Dit is in 1998 herbevestig toe resolusie 1998/77 verklaar het dat " 'n persoon gewetensbesware kan ''ontwikkel'' terwyl hy of sy militêre diensplig verrig".<ref name=unhchr>{{cite web |url=http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/5bc5759a53f36ab380256671004b643a?Opendocument |title=Conscientious objection to military service; Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77; see preamble "Aware..." |author=United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights |date=22 April 1998 |work= |publisher=United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights |accessdateaccess-date=8 Desember 2009 |language=en |archive-12url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181119071939/http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/5bc5759a53f36ab380256671004b643a?Opendocument |archive-date=19 November 2018 |url-status=dead|df=dmy-08all}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=search&amp;docid=3b00f0be10&amp;skip=0&amp;query=1998/77 |title=Conscientious objection to military service; E/CN.4/RES/1998/77; See introductory paragraph |date=22 April 1998 |publisher=UN Commission on Human Rights |accessdateaccess-date=9 Desember 2009 |archive-12url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110409082155/http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=search |archive-date=9 April 2011 |url-status=live|df=dmy-09all}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/sdpage_e.aspx?b=1&se=10&t=11|title=Conscientious objection to military service, Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77, Navigation to document: press "next" four times, see bottom listing, and at the right choose letter for language ("E" for English) Document: CHR 54th 4/22/1998E/CN.4/RES/1998/77|year=1998|publisher=United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights|accessdate=2008-04-24}}</ref><ref name="D. CHRISTOPHER DECKER, AND LUCIA FRESA">{{cite web|url=http://www1.law.nyu.edu/journals/jilp/issues/33/pdf/33n.pdf|title=THE STATUS OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION UNDER ARTICLE 4 OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 33 N.Y.U. J. INT'L L. & POL. 379 (2000); See pages 412–424, (or PDF pages 34–36)|author1=D. CHRISTOPHER DECKER|author2=AND LUCIA FRESA|date=29 Maart 2001|work=|publisher=New York University School of Law, Issues&nbsp;– Volume 33|accessdate=2009-12-02}}</ref> 'n Aantal organisasies oor die wêreld heen vier dié beginsel op 15 Mei as Internasionale Gewetensbeswaardesdag.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.wri-irg.org/campaigns/co_day |title=Campaigns: International Day on Conscientious Objection |accessdateaccess-date=10 Mei 2014 |language=en |archive-05url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170427083434/http://www.wri-10irg.org:80/campaigns/co_day |archive-date=27 April 2017 |url-status=dead|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
== Geskiedenis ==
''An Encyclopedia of War and Ethics''.</ref>
 
Formele wetgewing om beswaarmakers daarvan vry te stel om te veg is in die middel 18de eeu in Brittanje toegestaan na probleme om Kwakers te dwing om militêre diens te doen. In 1757, toe die eerste pogings aangewend is om 'n Britse burgermag as 'n professionele nasionale militêre reserwemag op die been te bring, het 'n bepaling in die Burgermaglotingwet Kwakers in staat gestel om vrygestel te word van militêre diensplig.<ref>{{Citecite web |url=http://www.quakersintheworld.org/quakers-in-action/171 |title=Conscientious Objection |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191022075704/http://www.quakersintheworld.org:80/quakers-in-action/171 |archive-date=22 Oktober 2019 |url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
In die Verenigde State was gewetensbeswaar vanaf die stigting van die land toegelaat, hoewel die regulasies oorgelaat is aan die individuele state voordat met diensplig begin is.
Die proklamasie is op 10 Desember 1948 deur die Algemene Vergadering aanvaar met 'n stemming van 48 ten gunste, 0 daarteen en 8 wat buite stemming gebly het.<ref>See http://www.unac.org/rights/question.html under "Who are the signatories of the Declaration?"</ref>
[[Lêer:Muhammad Ali NYWTS.jpg|duimnael|"Ek het geen rusie met die Viëtnamese nie... Hulle het my nooit ''nigger'' genoem nie."&nbsp;– [[Muhammad Ali]], 1966]]
In 1974 het die assistent-sekretaris-generaal van die Verenigde Nasies, Sean MacBride, in sy Nobel-lesing gesê: "By die regte wat vasgelê is in die Universele Verklaring van Menseregte kan mens nog een ding heel toepaslik byvoeg. Dit is: "Die reg om te weier om dood te maak."<ref>{{cite web |url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1974/macbride-lecture.html |title=The Imperatives of Survival |year=1974 |publisher=Nobel Foundation |accessdateaccess-date=30 April 2008 |language=en |archive-04url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180326064355/https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1974/macbride-30lecture.html |archive-date=26 Maart 2018 |url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
In 2006 het die Verenigde Nasies se Menseregtekommissie vir die eerste 'n reg tot gewetensbeswaar onder artikel 18 aanvaar, maar nie eenparig nie.<ref>[http://www.bayefsky.com/pdf/korea_t5_iccpr_1321_1322_2004.pdf HRC views in case Yoon and Choi v.]</ref>
 
In 1998 het die Menseregtekommissie 'n vorige verklaring herhaal en bygevoeg: "Lande moet... hulle daarvan weerhou om gewetensbeswaardes te onderwerp aan herhaalde straf vir die weiering om militêre diens te doen."<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3b00f0be10.html |title=Conscientious objection to military service; E/CN.4/RES/1998/77; See Point #5 |date=22 April 1998 |publisher=UN Commission on Human Rights |accessdateaccess-date=9 Desember 2009 |language=en |archive-12url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121010022844/http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3b00f0be10.html |archive-date=10 Oktober 2012 |url-status=live|df=dmy-09all}}</ref> Dit moedig ook lande aan "om te oorweeg om asiel te bied aan gewetensbeswaardes wat genoop voel om hul land van oorsprong te verlaat omdat hulle bang is vir vervolging weens hulle weiering om militêre diens te verrig".<ref>{{cite web|urlname=http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/5bc5759a53f36ab380256671004b643a?Opendocument|title=Conscientious objection to military service; Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77; see point *7|author=United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights|date=22 April 1998|work=|publisher=United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights|accessdate=2009-12-08}}</ref>
 
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