Verskil tussen weergawes van "Gewetensbeswaarde"

15 grepe verwyder ,  4 maande gelede
k
Robot: standardiseer verwysingsjablone en voeg argiefskakels in.
k (Robot: standardiseer verwysingsjablone en voeg argiefskakels in.)
k (Robot: standardiseer verwysingsjablone en voeg argiefskakels in.)
 
'n '''Gewetensbeswaarde''' of '''diensweieraar''' is 'n "individu wat die reg opeis om te weier om militêre diens te doen"<ref>On July 30, 2001, explicit clarification of the [[:en:International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights|International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]] Article 18 was made in the United Nations [[:en:Human Rights Committee|Human Rights Committee]] general comment 22, Para. 11: {{cite web |url=http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/FreedomReligion/Pages/IstandardsI3k.aspx |title=Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief. Framework for communications. Conscientious Objection |publisher=Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights |access-date=7 Mei 2012 |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200106042616/https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/FreedomReligion/Pages/IstandardsI3k.aspx |archive-date=6 Januarie 2020 |url-status=live |df=dmy-all}}</ref> op grond van sy of haar vryheid van denke, gewete of godsdiens.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CCPR.aspx |title=International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights |access-date=15 Mei 2008 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200512032053/https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CCPR.aspx |archive-date=12 Mei 2020 |url-status=live |df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
In party lande word gewetensbeswaardes toegedeel vir alternatiewe burgerlike diens as 'n plaasvervanger vir diensplig of militêre diens. Party gewetensbeswaardes beskou hulself as pasifiste, nie-intervensioniste, nie-weerstandbieders, nie-aggressiewes of antimilitariste.
 
Op 8 Maart 1995 het die Verenigde Nasies se Menseregtekommissie in resolusie 1995/83 verklaar: "Mense wat militêre diens doen mag nie uitgesluit wees van die reg om gewetensbeswaar teen militêre diens aan te teken nie.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c22523,4565c25f2c9,3b00f0d220,0.html |title=UN Commission on Human Rights, Conscientious objection to military service., 8 March 1995, E/CN.4/RES/1995/83 (See point #2) |author=UN Commission on Human Rights |date=8 Maart 1995 |work= |publisher=UN Commission on Human Rights |access-date=2 Desember 2009 |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190503014210/https://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c22523,4565c25f2c9,3b00f0d220,0.html |archive-date=3 Mei 2019 |url-status=live |df=dmy-all}}</ref> Dit is in 1998 herbevestig toe resolusie 1998/77 verklaar het dat " 'n persoon gewetensbesware kan ''ontwikkel'' terwyl hy of sy militêre diensplig verrig".<ref name=unhchr>{{cite web |url=http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/5bc5759a53f36ab380256671004b643a?Opendocument |title=Conscientious objection to military service; Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77; see preamble "Aware..." |author=United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights |date=22 April 1998 |work= |publisher=United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights |access-date=8 Desember 2009 |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181119071939/http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/5bc5759a53f36ab380256671004b643a?Opendocument |archive-date=19 November 2018 |url-status=dead |df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=search&amp;docid=3b00f0be10&amp;skip=0&amp;query=1998/77 |title=Conscientious objection to military service; E/CN.4/RES/1998/77; See introductory paragraph |date=22 April 1998 |publisher=UN Commission on Human Rights |access-date=9 Desember 2009 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110409082155/http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=search |archive-date=9 April 2011 |url-status=live |df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/sdpage_e.aspx?b=1&se=10&t=11|title=Conscientious objection to military service, Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77, Navigation to document: press "next" four times, see bottom listing, and at the right choose letter for language ("E" for English) Document: CHR 54th 4/22/1998E/CN.4/RES/1998/77|year=1998|publisher=United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights|accessdate=2008-04-24}}</ref><ref name="D. CHRISTOPHER DECKER, AND LUCIA FRESA">{{cite web|url=http://www1.law.nyu.edu/journals/jilp/issues/33/pdf/33n.pdf|title=THE STATUS OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION UNDER ARTICLE 4 OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 33 N.Y.U. J. INT'L L. & POL. 379 (2000); See pages 412–424, (or PDF pages 34–36)|author1=D. CHRISTOPHER DECKER|author2=AND LUCIA FRESA|date=29 Maart 2001|work=|publisher=New York University School of Law, Issues&nbsp;– Volume 33|accessdate=2009-12-02}}</ref> 'n Aantal organisasies oor die wêreld heen vier dié beginsel op 15 Mei as Internasionale Gewetensbeswaardesdag.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.wri-irg.org/campaigns/co_day |title=Campaigns: International Day on Conscientious Objection |access-date=10 Mei 2014 |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170427083434/http://www.wri-irg.org:80/campaigns/co_day |archive-date=27 April 2017 |url-status=dead |df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
== Geskiedenis ==
398 501

wysigings