Mariner 2: Verskil tussen weergawes

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[[Lêer:Kennedy Receives Mariner 2 Model.jpg|duimnael|'n Model van Mariner 2 word aan President Kennedy gewys tydens 'n vergadering met die NASA beamptes na die suksesvolle voltooiing van die missie, 1963]]
'''Mariner 2''' ('''Mariner-Venus 1962'''), is die eerste [[Amerika]]anse onbemande ruimtetuig wat 'n naby verbyvlug met 'n [[planeet]] susksesvolsuksesvol voltooi het.
 
an American space probe to [[Venus]], was the first robotic [[space probe]] to conduct a successful planetary encounter.<!-- The first successful [[spacecraft]] in the [[NASA]] [[Mariner program]], it was a simplified version of the Block I spacecraft of the [[Ranger program]] and an exact copy of [[Mariner 1]]. The missions of the Mariner 1 and 2 spacecraft are sometimes known as the Mariner R missions. Original plans called for the probes to be launched on the [[Atlas-Centaur]], but serious developmental problems with that vehicle forced a switch to the much smaller [[RM-81 Agena|Agena B]] second stage. As such, the design of the Mariner R vehicles was greatly simplified. Far less instrumentation was carried than on the Soviet [[Venera]] probes of this period—for example, forgoing a TV camera—as the Atlas-Agena B had only half as much lift capacity as the Soviet [[Molniya (rocket)|8K78]] booster. The Mariner 2 spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral on August 27, 1962, and passed as close as {{convert|34773|km|sp=us}} to Venus on December 14, 1962.<ref name="NSSDC">{{cite web|url=https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1962-041A|title=Mariner 2|publisher=US National Space Science Data Center|accessdate=September 8, 2013}}</ref>
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an American space probe to [[Venus]], was the first robotic [[space probe]] to conduct a successful planetary encounter. The first successful [[spacecraft]] in the [[NASA]] [[Mariner program]], it was a simplified version of the Block I spacecraft of the [[Ranger program]] and an exact copy of [[Mariner 1]]. The missions of the Mariner 1 and 2 spacecraft are sometimes known as the Mariner R missions. Original plans called for the probes to be launched on the [[Atlas-Centaur]], but serious developmental problems with that vehicle forced a switch to the much smaller [[RM-81 Agena|Agena B]] second stage. As such, the design of the Mariner R vehicles was greatly simplified. Far less instrumentation was carried than on the Soviet [[Venera]] probes of this period—for example, forgoing a TV camera—as the Atlas-Agena B had only half as much lift capacity as the Soviet [[Molniya (rocket)|8K78]] booster. The Mariner 2 spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral on August 27, 1962, and passed as close as {{convert|34773|km|sp=us}} to Venus on December 14, 1962.<ref name="NSSDC">{{cite web|url=https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1962-041A|title=Mariner 2|publisher=US National Space Science Data Center|accessdate=September 8, 2013}}</ref>
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