Verskil tussen weergawes van "Louis Couperus"

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In 1894 het Couperus by die redaksie van ''De Gids'' aangesluit; die ander lede was Geertrudus Cornelis Willem Byvanck ('n skrywer), Jacob Nicolaas van Hall (skrywer en politikus), Anton Gerard van Hamel (professor in Frans), Ambrosius Hubrecht en Pieter Cort van der Linden. In September 1893 het Couperus en sy vrou vir die tweede keer na Italië vertrek. In Florence het hulle in 'n ''pension'' naby die [[Basiliek van Santa Maria Novella|Santa Maria Novella]] betrek; hier het Couperus in November 1893 'n skets getiteld ''Annonciatie'' - 'n literêre beskrywing van die gelyknamige skildery deur Simone Martini en Lippo Memmi in die [[Uffizi|Uffizi-galery]] - geskryf. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.165}} In Desember het Couperus en sy vrou Rome besoek, waar Couperus ''San Pietro'' geskryf het (sy indruk van die [[Sint Pieterskerk]]), ''Pincio'', Michelangelo se ''koepel'', ''[[Via Appia]]'' en ''Brief uit Rome''. In hierdie werke verwys Couperus na die werke wat hy self oor Rome gelees het: ''Ariadne'' deur Ouida, ''Rienzi'' deur Henry Bulwer, ''The Marmer Faun'' (''Transformation'') deur [[Nathaniel Hawthorne|Hawthorne]], ''Voyage en Italie'' deur [[Eric Temple Bell|Taine]] en ''Cosmopolotis'' deur Bourget. <ref name="BastetBiography "/>{{rp|p.166}} In Februarie 1894 het Couperus na [[Napels]] en [[Athene]] gereis, en daarna teruggekeer na Florence, waar hy Ouida besoek het. Couperus en sy vrou het teruggekeer na Nederland, waar Elisabeth Couperus-Baud 'n vertaling van George Moore se ''Vain Fortune'' gemaak het; hulle het in die huis aan Jacob van der Doesstraat 123 gaan woon. Gedurende hierdie tyd het Gerrit Jäger selfmoord gepleeg deur te verdrink. Couperus het begin werk aan wat uiteindelik ''Wereldvrede'' sou word, en 'n vertaling van [[Gustave Flaubert|Flaubert]] se ''La Tentation de Saint Antoine'' geskryf. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.170–172}}
 
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==Konsolidasie fase==
[[Lêer:CouperusHaverman1897.jpg|duimnael|upright|Louis Couperus in 1897, portret deur H. J. Haverman.]]
In 1894 anis English'n translationEngelse wasvertaling madevan by''Majesteit'' deur [[Alexander Teixeira de Mattos]] of ''Majesteit''gemaak; reviewersdie wereresensente was egter nie tevrede daarmee not satisfiednie, anden in theNederland Netherlandsis Couperus newse novelnuwe roman ''Wereldvrede'' wasook seennie bygunstig criticsdeur askritici a flat novel,ontvang intended for womennie. ApartAfgesien fromdaarvan thathet Lodewijk van Deyssel wroteook a'n reviewuiters innegatiewe whichresensie hegeskryf askedwaarin hy Couperus toaangeraai gethet lostdat ("De heer Couperus kan van mij ophoepelen"), and. Couperus himselfself endedhet hissy editorshipredakteurskap atby ''De Gids'' (April 1895) opgesê. <ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.175–177}} In OctoberOktober 1895 het Couperus anden hissy wifevrou travelledweer tona ItalyItalië again,gereis wherewaar they visitedhulle [[VeniceVenesië]] besoek het; theyhulle stayedhet atin a'n hotel nearnaby thedie [[Piazza San Marco]] gebly, anden Couperus studiedhet thedie workswerke ofvan [[Tintoretto]], [[TitianTitiaan]] anden [[Paolo Veronese|Veronese]] bestudeer. TheDie nextvolgende citystad theywat visitedhulle besoek het was Rome, wherewaar Couperus would'n receiveaantal aslegte numberresensies of bad reviews ofvan hissy bookboek ''Wereldvrede'' sou ontvang. <ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.179}} In Rome hehet methy Dutchdie sculptorNederlandse beeldhouer [[Pier Pander]] anden die DutchNederlandse painterskilder [[Pieter de Josselin de Jong]] ontmoet. In MarchMaart 1896 het Couperus anden hissy wifevrou returnedteruggekeer tona the NetherlandsNederland. <ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.184–185}} In 1896 het ''Hoge troeven'' ("Highverskyn, Trumps")met was'n publishedboekomslag withwat aontwerp bookis coverdeur designed by [[Hendrik Petrus Berlage]], anden in April 1896 het Couperus startedbegin skryf aan writing ''Metamorfoze'' ("Metamorphosis"). In September Couperushet visitedCouperus Johan Hendrik Ram in [[Zeist]] besoek, wherewaar Ram stayedby withsy hisvader fathergebly het. Couperus spokehet withmet Ram aboutgesels oor ''Metamorfoze''. ThatDieselfde samejaar yearhet Couperus spend'n somegeruime timetyd in ParisParys deurgebring. <ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.191}} In 1897 het was Couperus klaar geskryf aan ''Metamorfoze'', wat in ''De Gids'' sou verskyn. Intussen het Elisabeth Couperus-Baud [[Oliver Schreiner]] se ''Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland'' vertaal. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.196}} Dieselfde jaar Couperus en sy vrou na [[Dresden]] vertrek, maar ook tyd deurgebring in [[Heidelberg]]. In Augustus 1897 het Couperus met sy nuwe boek, ''Psyche'' begin, en is hy aangestel as offisier in die [[Orde van Oranje-Nassau]]. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.199}} In Januarie 1898 het ''De Gids'' hoofstukke van ''Psyche'' begin publiseer. In Februarie 1898 het Couperus na Berlyn gereis waar hy Else Otten, die Duitse vertaler van sy boeke (en wie ook '' Psyche '' in Duits sou vertaal) ontmoet het. <ref name="BastetBiography"/> {{rp|p.206}} Saam met Elisabeth Couperus-Baud het hy Nederland in Mei 1898 verlaat vir 'n kort reis na Londen, waar hulle vriende ontmoet en die Ascot resiesbaan besoek het; Alexander Teixeira de Mattos het vir Couperus en sy vrou tydens 'n ''high tea'' voorgestel aan Engelse joernaliste en letterkundiges. Couperus het ook vir Edmund Gosse ontmoet, wat in 1891 'n voorwoord geskryf het vir ''Footsteps of Fate'', en die Engelse skilder Lawrence Alma-Tadema, wat 'n swaer van Gosse was. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.210–211}} Couperus en sy vrou het via [[Oxford]] teruggekeer na Nederland, waar hy in Desember 1898 ''Fidessa'' voltooi het. Couperus en sy vrou het daarna na Nederlands Oos-Indië vertrek en einde Maart 1899 in [[Tanjung Priok]] gearriveer. In Junie het hulle Couperus se suster Trudy en haar man Gerard Valette besoek, wat as 'n resident in [[Tegal]] gewerk het. Hier het Couperus sy nuwe roman, ''Langs lijnen der geleidelijkheid'', begin skryf. Toe Gerard Valette en sy vrou na [[Pasuruan]] moes verhuis weens Valette se werksverpligtinge, het Couperus en sy vrou 'n geruime tyd in Gabroe ([[Blitar]]) deurgebring. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.224}}
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In 1897 Couperus finished writing ''Metamorfoze'', which was to be published in ''De Gids''. Meanwhile, Elisabeth Couperus-Baud translated [[Olive Schreiner]]'s ''Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland''.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.196}} That same year Couperus and his wife left for [[Dresden]] but also spend some time in [[Heidelberg]]. In August 1897 Couperus started with his new book ''Psyche'' and was appointed officer in the [[Order of Orange-Nassau]].<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.199}} In January 1898, ''De Gids'' started publishing chapters of ''Psyche''.
 
In February 1898 Couperus travelled to Berlin, where he visited [[Else Otten]], the German translator of his books and who would also translate ''Psyche'' into German.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.206}} With Elisabeth Couperus-Baud he left the Netherlands in May 1898 for a short trip to London, where they met friends and visited [[Ascot Racecourse]]; Alexander Teixeira de Mattos introduced Couperus and his wife during a [[Tea (meal)|high tea]] to English journalists and literary people. Couperus also met [[Edmund Gosse]], who had written a foreword to ''Footsteps of Fate'' in 1891, and English painter [[Lawrence Alma-Tadema]], who was a brother-in-law of Gosse.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.210–211}} Via [[Oxford]], Couperus and his wife returned to the Netherlands, where he finished ''Fidessa'' in December 1898. Couperus and his wife then left for the Netherlands Dutch Indies and arrived at the end of March 1899 in [[Tanjung Priok]]. In June they visited Couperus sister Trudy and her husband Gerard Valette, who was working as a [[Resident (title)|resident]] at [[Tegal (city)|Tegal]]. Here Couperus started to write his new novel, ''Langs lijnen der geleidelijkheid'' (''[[Inevitable (book)|Inevitable]]''). When Gerard Valette and his wife had to move to [[Pasuruan]] because of Valette's work, Couperus and his wife spend some time in Gabroe ([[Blitar]]), where Couperus observed a [[spirit]]; this experience he would later use in his novel ''The Hidden Force''.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.224}}
 
==After the ''Hidden Force''==
Many of the details about the life and works of a resident in the Dutch East Indies Couperus derived from his brother-in-law De la Valette. He characterized ''The Hidden Force'' as: ''The Hidden Force gives back especially the enmity of the mysterious Javanese soul and atmosphere, fighting against the Dutch conqueror.''<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.226}} Meanwhile, Couperus received a letter from his friend Johan Hendrik Ram, in which Ram wrote that he and lieutenant [[Lodewijk Thomson]] were about to travel to South Africa to follow the course of the [[Boer War]]s as [[diplomat|military diplomat]]s. In March 1900 Couperus and his wife travelled back to the Netherlands, where in ''De Gids'' the text of ''Inevitable'' was published.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.228}} In October 1900 Couperus and his wife moved to [[Nice]], where Couperus read [[Henryk Sienkiewicz]]' ''[[With Fire and Sword]]'', ''[[The Deluge (novel)|The Deluge]]'' and ''[[Quo Vadis (novel)|Quo Vadis]]'', while his own ''The Hidden Force'' was published in the Netherlands.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.251}} Meanwhile, Couperus started to work on his new novels ''Babel'' and ''De boeken der kleine zielen'' ("The Book of Small Souls"). In 1902 he was asked to become a member of the editorial board of a new magazine called "''Groot Nederland"'', together with W.G. van Nouhuys and [[Cyriel Buysse]].<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.276}} In October 1902 Couperus' father died at the age of 86. His house at Surinamestraat 20, The Hague was eventually sold to [[Conrad Theodor van Deventer]]. Couperus and his wife kept living in Nice, but Couperus went in January 1903 to Rome, where he met Pier Pander again and also received a letter from his publisher L.J. Veen, in which he complained that Couperus' books did not sell.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.292}} In May 1903 Couperus published ''Dionyzos-studiën'' ("Studies of [[Dionysus]]") in ''Groot Nederland'', in which Couperus paid tribute to [[classical antiquity]] (a doctrine without [[original sin]]) and especially to the god Dionysus.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.296}}
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