Verskil tussen weergawes van "Louis Couperus"

344 grepe verwyder ,  9 maande gelede
geen wysigingsopsomming nie
[[Lêer:CouperusHaverman1897.jpg|duimnael|upright|Louis Couperus in 1897, portret deur H. J. Haverman.]]
In 1894 is 'n Engelse vertaling van ''Majesteit'' deur [[Alexander Teixeira de Mattos]] gemaak; die resensente was egter nie tevrede daarmee nie, en in Nederland is Couperus se nuwe roman ''Wereldvrede'' ook nie gunstig deur kritici ontvang nie. Afgesien daarvan het Lodewijk van Deyssel ook 'n uiters negatiewe resensie geskryf waarin hy Couperus aangeraai het dat "De heer Couperus kan van mij ophoepelen". Couperus self het sy redakteurskap by ''De Gids'' (April 1895) opgesê. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.175–177}} In Oktober 1895 het Couperus en sy vrou weer na Italië gereis waar hulle [[Venesië]] besoek het; hulle het in 'n hotel naby die Piazza San Marco gebly, en Couperus het die werke van [[Tintoretto]], [[Titiaan]] en [[Paolo Veronese|Veronese]] bestudeer. Die volgende stad wat hulle besoek het was Rome, waar Couperus 'n aantal slegte resensies van sy boek ''Wereldvrede'' sou ontvang. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.179}} In Rome het hy die Nederlandse beeldhouer Pier Pander en die Nederlandse skilder [[Pieter de Josselin de Jong]] ontmoet. In Maart 1896 het Couperus en sy vrou teruggekeer na Nederland. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.184–185}} In 1896 het ''Hoge troeven'' verskyn, met 'n boekomslag wat ontwerp is deur Hendrik Petrus Berlage, en in April 1896 het Couperus begin skryf aan ''Metamorfoze''. In September het Couperus Johan Hendrik Ram in [[Zeist]] besoek, waar Ram by sy vader gebly het. Couperus het met Ram gesels oor ''Metamorfoze''. Dieselfde jaar het Couperus 'n geruime tyd in Parys deurgebring. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.191}} In 1897 het was Couperus klaar geskryf aan ''Metamorfoze'', wat in ''De Gids'' sou verskyn. Intussen het Elisabeth Couperus-Baud [[Oliver Schreiner]] se ''Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland'' vertaal. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.196}} Dieselfde jaar Couperus en sy vrou na [[Dresden]] vertrek, maar ook tyd deurgebring in [[Heidelberg]]. In Augustus 1897 het Couperus met sy nuwe boek, ''Psyche'' begin, en is hy aangestel as offisier in die [[Orde van Oranje-Nassau]]. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.199}} In Januarie 1898 het ''De Gids'' hoofstukke van ''Psyche'' begin publiseer. In Februarie 1898 het Couperus na Berlyn gereis waar hy Else Otten, die Duitse vertaler van sy boeke (en wie ook '' Psyche '' in Duits sou vertaal) ontmoet het. <ref name="BastetBiography"/> {{rp|p.206}} Saam met Elisabeth Couperus-Baud het hy Nederland in Mei 1898 verlaat vir 'n kort reis na Londen, waar hulle vriende ontmoet en die Ascot resiesbaan besoek het; Alexander Teixeira de Mattos het vir Couperus en sy vrou tydens 'n ''high tea'' voorgestel aan Engelse joernaliste en letterkundiges. Couperus het ook vir Edmund Gosse ontmoet, wat in 1891 'n voorwoord geskryf het vir ''Footsteps of Fate'', en die Engelse skilder Lawrence Alma-Tadema, wat 'n swaer van Gosse was. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.210–211}} Couperus en sy vrou het via [[Oxford]] teruggekeer na Nederland, waar hy in Desember 1898 ''Fidessa'' voltooi het. Couperus en sy vrou het daarna na Nederlands Oos-Indië vertrek en einde Maart 1899 in [[Tanjung Priok]] gearriveer. In Junie het hulle Couperus se suster Trudy en haar man Gerard Valette besoek, wat as 'n resident in [[Tegal]] gewerk het. Hier het Couperus sy nuwe roman, ''Langs lijnen der geleidelijkheid'', begin skryf. Toe Gerard Valette en sy vrou na [[Pasuruan]] moes verhuis weens Valette se werksverpligtinge, het Couperus en sy vrou 'n geruime tyd in Gabroe ([[Blitar]]) deurgebring. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.224}}
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==After the ''Hidden Force''==
Many of the details about the life and works of a resident in the Dutch East Indies Couperus derived from his brother-in-law De la Valette. He characterized ''The Hidden Force'' as: ''The Hidden Force gives back especially the enmity of the mysterious Javanese soul and atmosphere, fighting against the Dutch conqueror.''<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.226}} Meanwhile, Couperus received a letter from his friend Johan Hendrik Ram, in which Ram wrote that he and lieutenant [[Lodewijk Thomson]] were about to travel to South Africa to follow the course of the [[Boer War]]s as [[diplomat|military diplomat]]s. In March 1900 Couperus and his wife travelled back to the Netherlands, where in ''De Gids'' the text of ''Inevitable'' was published.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.228}} In October 1900 Couperus and his wife moved to [[Nice]], where Couperus read [[Henryk Sienkiewicz]]' ''[[With Fire and Sword]]'', ''[[The Deluge (novel)|The Deluge]]'' and ''[[Quo Vadis (novel)|Quo Vadis]]'', while his own ''The Hidden Force'' was published in the Netherlands.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.251}} Meanwhile, Couperus started to work on his new novels ''Babel'' and ''De boeken der kleine zielen'' ("The Book of Small Souls"). In 1902 he was asked to become a member of the editorial board of a new magazine called "''Groot Nederland"'', together with W.G. van Nouhuys and [[Cyriel Buysse]].<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.276}} In October 1902 Couperus' father died at the age of 86. His house at Surinamestraat 20, The Hague was eventually sold to [[Conrad Theodor van Deventer]]. Couperus and his wife kept living in Nice, but Couperus went in January 1903 to Rome, where he met Pier Pander again and also received a letter from his publisher L.J. Veen, in which he complained that Couperus' books did not sell.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.292}} In May 1903 Couperus published ''Dionyzos-studiën'' ("Studies of [[Dionysus]]") in ''Groot Nederland'', in which Couperus paid tribute to [[classical antiquity]] (a doctrine without [[original sin]]) and especially to the god Dionysus.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.296}}
 
==After theNa die '' Hidden Force '' ==
Couperus left that year (1903) again for Italy (Venice) and went to Nice in September. During the winter of 1903–1904, he read [[Jean Lombard]]'s work about Roman emperor [[Elagabalus]]; in 1903 Georges Duviquet published his ''Héliogabale'', which was just what Couperus needed for his idea to write a novel about a crazy emperor (''De berg van licht'', "The Mountain of Light"). Meanwhile, to pay his bills, he wrote ''Van oude menschen, de dingen, die voorbij gaan'' ("Of old people, the things that pass").<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.302}} In 1905 he published ''De berg van licht'', which was rather controversial as it dealt with the subject of homosexuality. In 1906 Couperus and his wife left for [[Bagni di Lucca]] (Italy), where they stayed at Hotel Continental and were introduced to [[Eleonora Duse]]. In May 1907 ''Aan den weg der vreugde'', a novella Couperus wrote while staying at Bagni di Lucca, was published in ''Groot Nederland''; he received another letter from L.J. Veen, saying that Couperus' books did not sell well, and so Couperus wrote a farewell letter to Veen in which he told Veen this was the end of their business relationship.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.341}} During the summer of 1907 Couperus wrote in [[Siena]] the story ''Uit de jeugd van San Francesco van Assisi'''("From the youth of St. [[Francis of Assisi]]") to be published in ''Groot Nederland''. From this period on Couperus claimed that the days of novels were counted and that short stories (called short novels by Couperus) were the novels of the future. Couperus would write a series of short stories, which he published the then coming years in magazines such as "De Locomotief", "[[De Telegraaf]]" and the "Kroniek".<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.347}}
Couperus het baie van die besonderhede oor die lewe en werke van 'n inwoner in die Nederlands Oos-Indie by sy swaer De la Valette bekom. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.226}} Intussen het Couperus 'n brief van sy vriend Johan Hendrik Ram ontvang waarin Ram geskryf het dat hy en luitenant Lodewijk Thomson op die punt was om na Suid-Afrika te reis om die loop van die [[Tweede Vryheidsoorlog|Anglo-Boereoorlog]] as militêre diplomate te volg. In Maart 1900 het Couperus en sy vrou teruggereis na Nederland. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.228}} In Oktober 1900 het Couperus en sy vrou na [[Nice]] verhuis waar Couperus Henryk Sienkiewicz se werke gelees het terwyl sy eie ''The Hidden Force'' in Nederland gepubliseer is. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp |p.251}} Intussen het Couperus begin werk aan sy nuwe romans ''Babel'' en ''De boeken der kleine zielen''. In 1902 is hy gevra om lid te word van die redaksie van 'n nuwe tydskrif genaamd ''Groot Nederland'' saam met WG van Nouhuys en Cyriel Buysse. <ref name="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.276}} In Oktober 1902 het Couperus se vader op 86-jarige ouderdom gesterf. Sy huis aan die Surinamestraat 20, Den Haag, is uiteindelik aan Conrad Theodor van Deventer verkoop. Couperus en sy vrou het in Nice bly woon, maar Couperus is in Januarie 1903 na Rome, waar hy Pier Pander weer ontmoet het en ook 'n brief van sy uitgewer LJ Veen ontvang het, waarin hy kla dat Couperus se boeke nie verkoop nie. <ref naam="BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.292}} In Mei 1903 het Couperus '' [[Dionisus|Dionyzos]]-studiën'' in ''Groot Nederland'' gepubliseer, waarin Couperus hulde gebring het aan die [[klassieke oudheid]] ('n leerstelling sonder erfsonde) en veral aan die god Dionisus. <ref name = "BastetBiography"/>{{rp|p.296}}
 
Couperus lefthet thatdaardie yearjaar (1903) againweer forna ItalyItalië (VeniceVenesië) andvertrek wenten to Niceis in September na Nice. DuringGedurende thedie winter ofvan 1903–1904, hehet readhy [[Jean Lombard]]'s workse aboutwerk Romanoor emperordie Romeinse keiser [[Elagabalus]] gelees; in 1903 het Georges Duviquet published hissy ''Héliogabale'' gepubliseer, whichwat waspresies justwas whatwat Couperus needednodig forgehad hishet ideavir tosy writeidee aom novel'n aboutroman ate crazyskryf emperoroor 'n kranksinnige keiser (''De berg van licht'',). "TheIntussen Mountainhet ofhy, Light").ten Meanwhile,einde sy torekeninge payte hiskan billsbetaal, he wrote ''Van oude menschen, de dingen, die voorbij gaan'' ("Of oldgeskryf. people, the things that pass").<ref name="BastetBiography" /> {{rp|p.302}} In 1905 hehet publishedhy ''De berg van licht'' gepubliseer, whichwat taamlik kontroversieel was ratheromdat controversialdit asoor itdie dealtonderwerp with thevan subjecthomoseksualiteit ofgehandel homosexualityhet. In 1906 het Couperus anden hissy wifevrou left forna [[Bagni di Lucca]] (ItalyItalië) vertrek, wherewaar theyhulle stayed atin Hotel Continental andtuisgegaan wereen introducedhulle toaan [[Eleonora Duse]] voorgestel het. In MayMei 1907 het ''Aan den weg der vreugde'', a'n novelle novellawat Couperus wrotegeskryf whilehet stayingterwyl athy in Bagni di Lucca, wasvertoef publishedhet, in ''Groot Nederland'' verskyn; hehy receivedhet another'n letterverdere frombrief L.J.van LJ Veen, sayingontvang thatwat vermeld het dat Couperus' booksse didboeke notnie sellgoed well,verkoop andnie. soHierop Couperushet wrotehet aCouperus farewell'n letterafskeidsbrief toaan Veen ingeskryf whichwaarin hehy toldaan Veen thisgesê washet thedat enddit ofdie theireinde businessvan relationshiphul sakeverhouding was. <ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.341}} DuringGedurende thedie summersomer ofvan 1907 Couperushet wroteCouperus in [[Siena]] thedie storyverhaal ''Uit de jeugd van San Francesco van Assisi'''("From thegeskryf youthwat ofgepubliseer St.sou [[Francis of Assisi]]") to be publishedword in ''Groot Nederland''. FromVanaf thishierdie periodtydstip onaf het Couperus claimedbeweer thatdat thedie daysdae ofvan novelsromans weregetel countedis anden thatdat short storieskortverhale (called''kort shortromans'' novelsgenoem bydeur Couperus) weredie theromans novelsvan ofdie thetoekoms futurewas. Couperus wouldsou write'n areeks serieskortverhale ofskryf shortwat stories,hy whichin he published thedie thenkomende coming yearsjare in magazines suchtydskrifte assoos "De Locomotief", "[[De Telegraaf]]" anden thedie "Kroniek" sou publiseer.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.347}}
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==Endless travelling==
During the winter of 1908 Couperus resided in Florence, where he translated [[John Argyropoulos]]' ''Aristodemus''; he published his translation in ''Groot Nederland''. In August 1908 Couperus and his wife started a pension lodge in Nice and placed an advert in the ''[[New York Herald]]'' to attract future guests. As of 27 November 1909 Couperus started publishing weekly serials in the Dutch newspaper ''Het Vaderland''; he also published ''Korte arabesken'' ("Short Arabesques", 1911, with publisher Maatschappij voor
 
In these years Couperus met S.F. van Oss, who was the founder of [[HP/De Tijd|''De Haagsche Post'']], who asked if Couperus would be willing to write for his magazine. Couperus later published his travelogues (made during his travels to Africa, Dutch East Indies and Japan) as a result in De Haagsche Post, as well as many [[epigram]]s.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.523}} For his friend Herman Roelvink he translated the play written by [[George Bernard Shaw]], ''[[Caesar and Cleopatra (play)|Caesar and Cleopatra]]'' (1916). As from December 1916 he restarted writing his weekly sketch in ''Het Vaderland'', for example ''Romeinsche portretten'' (Roman portraits), during which he was inspired by [[Martial]] and [[Juvenal]]. He also continued giving performances for the public in the evening. In 1917 he wrote the novel ''Het zwevende schaakbord'' (The floating chessboard), about the adventures of [[Gawain]]; this novel was first published as a serial in the Haagsche Post. He read as research for this book [[Jacob van Maerlant]]'s ''Merlijns boec'' and Lodewijk van Velthem's ''Boec van Coninc Artur'' ("Book of King Arthur").<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.545}} In July 1918 publisher L.J. Veen sent Couperus a translation of [[Vitruvius]]' ''[[De architectura]]'' and Couperus wrote about it in ''Het Vaderland''. Meanwhile, het Hofstadtoneel (Residence Theater) was about to perform the stage version (made by Elisabeth Couperus-Baud) of ''Eline Vere''; this play received bad product reviews. During this period of his life Couperus read the works written by [[Quintus Curtius Rufus]], [[Arrian]] and [[Plutarch]] to find inspiration for his next work ''Iskander''.<ref name="BastetBiography" />{{rp|p.568}} The year 1919 was not a happy one for Couperus: his favourite nephew Frans Vlielander Hein died together with his wife when his ship was hit by a [[Naval mine|mine]] and L.J. Veen, his publisher and his brother-in-law Benjamin Marinus Vlielander Hein died that year as well.
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==Laaste jare==
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