Verskil tussen weergawes van "Aardbol"

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Plat kaarte berus op [[Kartografie|kaartprojeksies]] wat noodwendig 'n toenemende hoeveelheid distorsie insluit namate groter dele van die planeetoppervlak uitgebeeld word. 'n Globe is die enigste voorstelling van die Aarde wat nóg die vorm, nóg die grootte van uitgebreide kenmerke soos landmassas en waterliggame verwring.
 
Die [[Aardomtrek]] is ongeveer 40&nbsp;miljoen meter.<ref>Die Aardomtrek is 40&nbsp;miljoen&nbsp;mmeter omdat die [[meter]] aanvanklik gedefinieer is as een 10-miljoenste van die afstand tussen die pole en ewenaar.</ref><ref>Booglengte: Boë van omtreksirkels van die aarde</ref> Baie globes word vervaardig met 'n omtrek van een meter, en is gevolglik modelle van die Aarde teen 'n skaal van 1:40&nbsp;miljoen. Dikwels word globes met afmetings in [[Britse en Amerikaanse maateenhede|imperiale eenhede]] vervaardig en het dan 'n [[deursnee]] van een&nbsp;[[Voet (lengtemaat)|voet]] (c. 30&nbsp;cm), wat 'n omtrek van 3.14 voet (omtrent 96&nbsp;cm) lewer en gevolglik 'n skaal van 1:42&nbsp;miljoen. Globes word egter ook met etlike ander afmetings vervaardig.
 
Sekere globes word berei met 'n oppervlaktekstuur wat [[topografie]] of [[batimetrie]] aandui. In hierdie modelle word hoogtes en dale doelbewus oordryf, aangesien hulle andersins kwalik sigbaar sou wees. Een vervaardiger produseer byvoorbeeld 'n bol met deursnee van 64 cm (of 25 duim, ekwivalent aan 'n omtrek van 200&nbsp;cm of 'n skaal van sowat 1:20&nbsp;miljoen) en driedimensionale gehewe reliëf wat die hoogste berge as meer as 2.5 cm (1 duim) hoog aandui, wat omtrent 57 keer hoër is as die werklike skaal van [[Berg Everest]].<ref>[https://twitter.com/MapScaping/status/1094493425095856128 MapScaping op Twitter: "3D topografiese globe te Stanford's Branner Library."]</ref><ref>[https://www.1worldglobes.com/1WorldGlobes/classroom_relief_globe.htm The GEO One 25" Extreme Raised Relief Classroom Floor Globe]</ref>
 
Geen terrestriële globes van die antieke tyd of middeleeue het tot die hede oorleef nie. Daarteenoor oorleef 'n selestiale globe as deel van 'n 2de eeuse Romeinse kopie van 'n [[Hellenistiese tydperk|Hellenistiese]] beeldhouwerk, die sogenaamde [[Farnese Atlas]] in die [[Napelse Argeologiese Museum]], Italië.<ref name=Encarta>Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003.</ref>
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Early terrestrial globes depicting the entirety of the [[Old World]] were constructed in the [[Islamic Golden Age|Islamic world]].<ref>Medieval Islamic Civilization By Josef W. Meri, Jere L Bacharach, pages [https://books.google.com/books?id=H-k9oc9xsuAC&pg=PA138 138–139]</ref><ref>{{citation|title=The Third Dimension|first=Richard|last=Covington|journal=[[Saudi Aramco World]], May–June 2007|year=2007|pages=17–21|url=http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200703/the.third.dimension.htm|access-date=2008-07-06|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080512022044/http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200703/the.third.dimension.htm|archive-date=2008-05-12|url-status=dead}}</ref> According to David Woodward, one such example was the terrestrial globe introduced to [[Beijing]] by the [[Astronomy in medieval Islam|Persian]] astronomer, [[Jamal ad-Din (astronomer)|Jamal ad-Din]], in 1267.<ref>{{citation|title=The Image of the Spherical Earth|author=David Woodward|journal=[[Perspecta (journal)|Perspecta]]|volume=25|year=1989|pages=3–15 [9]|publisher=[[MIT Press]]|jstor=1567135}}</ref>
 
EarlyVroeë terrestrialaardbolle globeswat depicting the entirety of thedie [[OldOu WorldWêreld]] werein geheel uitbeeld constructedis in thedie Islamitiese wêreld tydens hul [[Islamitiese goue tydperk|goue tydperk]] [[Islamic Golden Age|Islamic world]] vervaardig.<ref>Medieval Islamic Civilization Bydeur Josef W. Meri, en Jere L. Bacharach, pagesbladsye [https://books.google.com/books?id=H-k9oc9xsuAC&pg=PA138 138–139]</ref><ref>{{citation|title=The Third Dimension |first=Richard |last=Covington |journal=[[Saudi Aramco World]], May–JuneMei–Junie 2007 |year=2007 |pages=17–21 |url= http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200703/the.third.dimension.htm |access-date=6 Julie 2008-07-06 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20080512022044/http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200703/the.third.dimension.htm |archive-date=2008-05-12 Mei 2008 |url-status=dead}}</ref> According toVolgens David Woodward, oneis sucheen examplesodanige wasaardbol thein terrestrial1267 globe introduced tona [[Beijing]] byuitgevoer thedeur die [[AstronomyAstronomie in medievalmiddeleeuse Islam|PersianPersiese]] astronomer,sterrekundige [[Jamal ad-Din (astronomersterrekundige)|Jamal ad-Din]], in 1267.<ref>{{citation|title=The Image of the Spherical Earth |author=David Woodward |journal=[[Perspecta (journalvaktydskrif)|Perspecta]]|volume=25|year=1989|pages=3–15 [9]|publisher=[[MIT Press]] |jstor=1567135}}</ref>
The earliest extant terrestrial globe was made in 1492 by [[Martin Behaim]] (1459–1537) with help from the painter Georg Glockendon.<ref name=Encarta/> Behaim was a German mapmaker, navigator, and merchant. Working in [[Nuremberg]], Germany, he called his globe the "Nürnberg Terrestrial Globe." It is now known as the [[Erdapfel]]. Before constructing the globe, Behaim had traveled extensively. He sojourned in [[Lisbon]] from 1480, developing commercial interests and mingling with explorers and scientists. He began to construct his globe after his return to Nürnberg in 1490.
 
Die vroegste ekstante aardbol is in 1492 deur [[Martin Behaim]] (1459–1537) gemaak, bygestaan deur die skilder Georg Glockendon.<ref name=Encarta/> Behaim was 'n Duitse kartograaf, seevaarder en koopman. Hy het sy aardbol die "Nürnbergse Terrestriële Globe" genoem, na sy werkplaas in Nürenberg, maar dit is later die [[Erdapfel]] genoem – die [[Aartappel|ertappel]]-plant was terloops nog onbekend in Europa. Voordat hy die aardbol saamgestel het, het Behaim ekstensiewe reise onderneem. Vanaf 1480 het hy in [[Lissabon]] versuim, waar hy handelsbelange opgebou het en met ontdekkers en wetenskaplikes in verbinding was. Na sy terugkeer na Nürnberg in 1490 het hy met die konstruksie van sy globe begin.
Another early globe, the [[Hunt–Lenox Globe]], ca. 1510, is thought to be the source of the phrase ''Hic Sunt Dracones'', or “[[Here be dragons]]”. A similar [[grapefruit]]-sized globe made from two halves of an [[ostrich egg]] was found in 2012 and is believed to date from 1504. It may be the oldest globe to show the [[New World]]. Stefaan Missine, who analyzed the globe for the Washington Map Society journal ''Portolan'', said it was “part of an important European collection for decades.”<ref name=Kim>{{cite news|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/oldest-globe-to-depict-the-new-world-may-have-been-discovered/2013/08/19/503b2b4a-06b4-11e3-a07f-49ddc7417125_story.html|title=Oldest globe to depict the New World may have been discovered|last=Kim|first=Meeri|work=[[Washington Post]]|date=2018-01-27}}</ref> After a year of research in which he consulted many experts, Missine concluded the Hunt–Lenox Globe was a [[copper]] [[Die casting|cast]] of the egg globe.<ref name=Kim/>
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Another early globe, the [[Hunt–Lenox Globe]], ca. 1510, is thought to be the source of the phrase ''Hic Sunt Dracones'', oroftewel “[[Here be dragons]]”. A similar [[grapefruit]]-sized globe made from two halves of an [[ostrich egg]] was found in 2012 and is believed to date from 1504. It may be the oldest globe to show the [[New World]]. Stefaan Missine, who analyzed the globe for the Washington Map Society journal ''Portolan'', said it was “part of an important European collection for decades.”<ref name=Kim>{{cite news|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/oldest-globe-to-depict-the-new-world-may-have-been-discovered/2013/08/19/503b2b4a-06b4-11e3-a07f-49ddc7417125_story.html|title=Oldest globe to depict the New World may have been discovered|last=Kim|first=Meeri|work=[[Washington Post]]|date=2018-01-27}}</ref> After a year of research in which he consulted many experts, Missine concluded the Hunt–Lenox Globe was a [[copper]] [[Die casting|cast]] of the egg globe.<ref name=Kim/>
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'n Faksimilee-globe wat Amerika aandui is in 1507 deur [[Martin Waldseemüller]] gemaak. 'n Verdere terrestriële globe met 'n besonder moderne voorkoms is deur [[Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf|Taqi al-Din]] by die [[Konstantinopelse Observatorium van Taqi ad-Din]] tydens die 1570s gemaak.<ref name=Soucek>{{citation|first=Svat|last=Soucek|title=Piri Reis and Ottoman Discovery of the Great Discoveries|journal=[[Studia Islamica]]|volume=79|issue=79|year=1994|pages=121–142 [123 & 134–6]|doi=10.2307/1595839|jstor=1595839|publisher=Maisonneuve & Larose}}</ref>
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