Verskil tussen weergawes van "Optogenetika"

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reagente & impl
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(reagente & impl)
 
[[Lêer:Example of optogenetic activation of prefrontal cortex.jpg|duimnael|regs|250px|Voorbeeld van optogenetiese aktivering van die [[frontale lob]]]]
'''Optogenetika''' (van [[Grieks]] ''optikós'', d.i. sigbaar, waargenome) is 'n biologiese tegniek wat lig aanwend om selle in lewende weefsel, tipies [[neuron]]e wat geneties gemodifiseer isword om uitdrukking te gee aan ligsensitiewe ioonkanale, te beheer. Dit is 'n metode van neuromodulasie wat in [[neurowetenskap]] gebruik word, wat [[optika|optiese]] en [[genetika|genetiese]] tegnieke kombineer om die aktiwiteite van indiwiduele neurone ''in vivo'' te moniteer en beheer — selfs in vrylik bewegende diere — en wat hierdie gemanupuleerde effekte deurlopend kan registreer.<ref name="Deisseroth 2006">{{cite journal|doi=10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3863-06.2006 |title=Next-Generation Optical Technologies for Illuminating Genetically Targeted Brain Circuits |year=2006 |last1=Deisseroth |first1=K. |last2=Feng |first2=G. |last3=Majewska |first3=A. K. |last4=Miesenbock |first4=G. |last5=Ting |first5=A. |last6=Schnitzer |first6=M. J. |journal=Journal of Neuroscience |volume=26 |issue=41 |pages=10380–6 |pmid=17035522 |pmc=2820367}}</ref> Die sleutelreagente van optogenetika is ligsensitiewe proteïene. Neuronale beheer word bewerkstellig deur die gebruik van '''optogenetiese aktuatore''' soos kanaalrhodopsien, halorhodopsien en mikrobiese, oftewel archaerhodopsien, terwyl die optiese waarneming van neuronale aktiwiteit deur '''optogenetiese sensore''' vir kalsium (GCaMP), vesikulêre vrystelling (sinaptopHluorien), neurosenders (GluSnFRs), of membraanspanning (ASAP1) gefasiliteer word.<ref>{{Cite journal | last1 = Mancuso | first1 = J. J. | last2 = Kim | first2 = J. | last3 = Lee | first3 = S. | last4 = Tsuda | first4 = S. | last5 = Chow | first5 = N. B. H. | last6 = Augustine | first6 = G. J. | doi = 10.1113/expphysiol.2010.055731 | title = Optogenetic probing of functional brain circuitry | journal = Experimental Physiology | volume = 96 | issue = 1 | pages = 26–33 | year = 2010 | pmid = 21056968 | pmc = }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Treger|first1=Jeremy|title=Single-molecule fluorimetry and gating currents inspire an improved optical voltage indicator |journal=eLife |date=2015 |volume=4 |page=e10482 |doi=10.7554/eLife.10482 |pmid=26599732 |pmc=4658195}}</ref> Beheer en effekbepaling is beperk tot die geneties gedefinieerde neurone, en word ruimtelik-temporaal deur lig bewerkstellig.
 
==Reagente en implementering==
Die vroegste benaderings tot optogenetiese beheer is deur Boris Zemelman en Gero Miesenböck ontwerp en toegepas<ref name="Zemelman 2002">{{Cite journal | doi = 10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00574-8 | last1 = Zemelman | first1 = B. V. | last2 = Lee | first2 = G. A. | last3 = Ng | first3 = M. | last4 = Miesenböck | first4 = G. | title = Selective photostimulation of genetically chARGed neurons | journal = Neuron | volume = 33 | issue = 1 | pages = 15–22 | year = 2002 | pmid = 11779476}}</ref><ref name="ReferenceA">{{cite journal | last1 = Zemelman | first1 = B. V. | last2 = Nesnas | first2 = N. | last3 = Lee | first3 = G.A. | last4 = Miesenböck | first4 = G. | year = 2003 | title = Photochemical gating of heterologous ion channels: Remote control over genetically designated populations of neurons | url = | journal = PNAS | volume = 100 | pages = 1352–7 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.242738899 | pmid = 12540832| PMC=298776 }}</ref> by die Sloan-Kettering-kankersentrum in [[New York Stad]], en Dirk Trauner, Richard Kramer en Ehud Isacoff by die [[Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley]]. Hierdie metodes het wel ligsensitiwiteit verleen, maar ander laboratoria het weens die baie essensiële komponente van hierdie benaderings nie opvolgwerk gedoen nie. 'n Daaropvolgende enkelkomponent-benadering wat mikrobiese opsiengene benut, is in 2005 van stapel gestuur en het wyd byval gevind. Optogenetika is bekend vir die hoë hoek- of ruimtelike resolusie sowel as die temporale resolusie wat dit bied om die aktiwiteit van spesifieke soorte neurone te verander en sodoende 'n subjek se gedrag te beheer.
Die sleutelreagente van optogenetika is ligsensitiewe proteïene. Neuronale beheer word bewerkstellig deur die gebruik van '''optogenetiese aktuatore''' soos kanaalrhodopsien (ligsensitiewe ioonkanale), halorhodopsien (ioonpomp) en mikrobiese oftewel archaerhodopsien, terwyl die optiese waarneming van neuronale aktiwiteit deur '''optogenetiese sensore''' vir kalsium (GCaMP), vesikulêre vrystelling (sinaptopHluorien), neurosenders (GluSnFRs), of membraanspanning (ASAP1) gefasiliteer word.<ref>{{Cite journal | last1 = Mancuso | first1 = J. J. | last2 = Kim | first2 = J. | last3 = Lee | first3 = S. | last4 = Tsuda | first4 = S. | last5 = Chow | first5 = N. B. H. | last6 = Augustine | first6 = G. J. | doi = 10.1113/expphysiol.2010.055731 | title = Optogenetic probing of functional brain circuitry | journal = Experimental Physiology | volume = 96 | issue = 1 | pages = 26–33 | year = 2010 | pmid = 21056968 | pmc = }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1= Treger |first1= Jeremy |title= Single-molecule fluorimetry and gating currents inspire an improved optical voltage indicator |journal=eLife |date=2015 |volume=4 |page=e10482 |doi=10.7554/eLife.10482 |pmid=26599732 |pmc=4658195}}</ref>
 
Beheer en effekbepaling is beperk tot die geneties gedefinieerde neurone, en word ruimtelik-temporaal deur lig bewerkstellig. Dit word uitgevoer deur geen-ekspressie van ligsensitiewe ioonkanale, ioonpompe of lig-geaktiveerde ensieme wat op die teikenselle inwerk. Lig-geaktiveerde ensieme en transskripsiefaktore fasiliteer op enkelselvlak presiese beheer oor biochemiese seinweë.<ref name=":4">{{cite journal | vauthors = Shimizu-Sato S, Huq E, Tepperman JM, Quail PH | title = A light-switchable gene promoter system | journal = Nature Biotechnology | volume = 20 | issue = 10 | pages = 1041–1044 | date = October 2002 | pmid = 12219076 | doi = 10.1038/nbt734 | s2cid = 24914960 }}</ref> In stelselneurowetenskap is die vermoë om aktiwiteitsbeheer te implementeer oor 'n geneties-gedefinieerde stel neurone aangewend om hul bydrae tot besluitneming,<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Guo ZV, Li N, Huber D, Ophir E, Gutnisky D, Ting JT, Feng G, Svoboda K | display-authors = 6 | title = Flow of cortical activity underlying a tactile decision in mice | journal = Neuron | volume = 81 | issue = 1 | pages = 179–194 | date = January 2014 | pmid = 24361077 | pmc = 3984938 | doi = 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.10.020 }}</ref> leervaardigheid,<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Lak A, Okun M, Moss MM, Gurnani H, Farrell K, Wells MJ, Reddy CB, Kepecs A, Harris KD, Carandini M | display-authors = 6 | title = Dopaminergic and Prefrontal Basis of Learning from Sensory Confidence and Reward Value | journal = Neuron | volume = 105 | issue = 4 | pages = 700–711.e6 | date = February 2020 | pmid = 31859030 | pmc = 7031700 | doi = 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.11.018 }}</ref> vreesgeheue,<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Liu X, Ramirez S, Pang PT, Puryear CB, Govindarajan A, Deisseroth K, Tonegawa S | title = Optogenetic stimulation of a hippocampal engram activates fear memory recall | journal = Nature | volume = 484 | issue = 7394 | pages = 381–385 | date = March 2012 | pmid = 22441246 | pmc = 3331914 | doi = 10.1038/nature11028 }}</ref> paringsgedrag<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Tanaka R, Higuchi T, Kohatsu S, Sato K, Yamamoto D | title = Optogenetic Activation of the ''fruitless''-Labeled Circuitry in ''Drosophila subobscura'' Males Induces Mating Motor Acts | journal = The Journal of Neuroscience | volume = 37 | issue = 48 | pages = 11662–11674 | date = November 2017 | pmid = 29109241 | pmc = 6705751 | doi = 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1943-17.2017 }}</ref> en verslawing<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Stamatakis AM, Stuber GD | title = Optogenetic strategies to dissect the neural circuits that underlie reward and addiction | journal = Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | volume = 2 | issue = 11 | pages = a011924–a011924 | date = November 2012 | pmid = 23043156 | pmc = 3543095 | doi = 10.1101/cshperspect.a011924 }}</ref> te verstaan. In 'n eerste mediese toepassing van optogenetiese tegnologie is die sig van 'n blinde pasiënt deels herstel.<ref name=":13">{{cite journal | vauthors = Sahel JA, Boulanger-Scemama E, Pagot C, Arleo A, Galluppi F, Martel JN, Esposti SD, Delaux A, de Saint Aubert JB, de Montleau C, Gutman E, Audo I, Duebel J, Picaud S, Dalkara D, Blouin L, Taiel M, Roska B | display-authors = 6 | title = Partial recovery of visual function in a blind patient after optogenetic therapy | journal = Nature Medicine | volume = 27 | issue = 7 | pages = 1223–1229 | date = July 2021 | pmid = 34031601 | doi = 10.1038/s41591-021-01351-4 | doi-access = free }}</ref> In 'n breër opsig sluit optogenetika ook metodes in wat sellulêre aktiwiteit meet deur middel van geneties geënkodeerde indikatore.
In 2010 is optogenetika gekies as die "metode van die jaar" uit al die studievelde in wetenskap en ingenieurswese deur die interdisiplinêre navorsingsjoernaal ''Nature Methods''.<ref>Inleiding tot Optogenetika: {{Cite journal|doi=10.1038/nmeth.f.323|title=Optogenetics: Controlling cell function with light|year=2010|last1=Pastrana|first1=Erika|journal=Nature Methods|volume=8|pages=24–25 |issue=1 |url=http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/v8/n1/full/nmeth.f.323.html}}<br /> Redaksie: {{Cite journal |doi=10.1038/nmeth.f.321 |title=Method of the Year 2010 |year=2010|journal=Nature Methods |volume=8 |pages=1|issue=1 |url=http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/v8/n1/full/nmeth.f.321.html}}<br /> Kommentaar: {{Cite journal |doi=10.1038/nmeth.f.324 |title=Optogenetics |year=2010 |last1=Deisseroth |first1=Karl |journal=Nature Methods |volume=8 |pages=26–9 |pmid=21191368 |issue=1 |url=http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/v8/n1/full/nmeth.f.324.html}}</ref> Terseldertyd is optogenetika uitgelig in 'n artikel oor deurbrake van die dekade in die akademiese navorsingsjoernaal ''Science''.<ref>{{Cite journal |pmid=21163985 |year=2010 |last1=News |first1=Staff|title=Insights of the decade. Stepping away from the trees for a look at the forest. Introduction |volume=330 |issue=6011 |pages=1612–3 |doi=10.1126/science.330.6011.1612|journal=Science|bibcode = 2010Sci...330.1612. }}</ref> Hierdie joernale het ook verwysings na 'n onlangse algemeen beskikbare video ([https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I64X7vHSHOE Metode van die jaar video]) van algemene belang ingesluit, benewens tekstuele ([http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=optogenetics-controlling SciAm]) opsommings van optogenetika.
 
==Ontwikkeling==
Die vroegste benaderings tot optogenetiese beheer is deur Boris Zemelman en Gero Miesenböck ontwerp en toegepas<ref name="Zemelman 2002">{{Cite journal | doi = 10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00574-8 | last1 = Zemelman | first1 = B. V. | last2 = Lee | first2 = G. A. | last3 = Ng | first3 = M. | last4 = Miesenböck | first4 = G. | title = Selective photostimulation of genetically chARGed neurons | journal = Neuron | volume = 33 | issue = 1 | pages = 15–22 | year = 2002 | pmid = 11779476}}</ref><ref name="ReferenceA">{{cite journal | last1 = Zemelman | first1 = B. V. | last2 = Nesnas | first2 = N. | last3 = Lee | first3 = G.A. | last4 = Miesenböck | first4 = G. | year = 2003 | title = Photochemical gating of heterologous ion channels: Remote control over genetically designated populations of neurons | url = | journal = PNAS | volume = 100 | pages = 1352–7 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.242738899 | pmid = 12540832| PMC=298776 }}</ref> by die Sloan-Kettering-kankersentrum in [[New York Stad]], en Dirk Trauner, Richard Kramer en Ehud Isacoff by die [[Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley]]. Hierdie metodes het wel ligsensitiwiteit verleen, maar ander laboratoria het weens die baieetlike essensiële komponente van hierdie benaderings nie opvolgwerk gedoen nie. 'n Daaropvolgende enkelkomponent-benadering wat mikrobiese opsiengene benut, is in 2005 van stapel gestuur en het wyd byval gevind. Optogenetika is bekend vir die hoë hoek- of ruimtelike resolusie sowel as die temporale resolusie wat dit bied om die aktiwiteit van spesifieke soorte neurone te verander en sodoende 'n subjek se gedrag te beheer.
 
In 2010 is optogenetika gekies as die "metode van die jaar" uit al die studievelde in wetenskap en ingenieurswese gekies as die "metode van die jaar" deur die interdisiplinêre navorsingsjoernaal ''Nature Methods''.<ref>Inleiding tot Optogenetika: {{Cite journal |doi= 10.1038/nmeth.f.323 |title= Optogenetics: Controlling cell function with light|year=2010|last1=Pastrana|first1=Erika|journal=Nature Methods |volume=8|pages=24–25 |issue=1 |url=http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/v8/n1/full/nmeth.f.323.html}}<br /> Redaksie: {{Cite journal |doi=10.1038/nmeth.f.321 |title= Method of the Year 2010 |year=2010|journal=Nature Methods |volume=8 |pages=1|issue=1 |url= http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/v8/n1/full/nmeth.f.321.html}}<br /> Kommentaar: {{Cite journal |doi=10.1038/nmeth.f.324 |title= Optogenetics |year=2010 |last1=Deisseroth |first1=Karl |journal=Nature Methods |volume=8 |pages=26–9 |pmid=21191368 |issue=1 |url= http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/v8/n1/full/nmeth.f.324.html}}</ref> Terseldertyd is optogenetika uitgelig in 'n artikel oor deurbrake van die dekade in die akademiese navorsingsjoernaal ''Science''.<ref>{{Cite journal |pmid=21163985 |year=2010 |last1=News |first1=Staff|title=Insights of the decade. Stepping away from the trees for a look at the forest. Introduction |volume=330 |issue=6011 |pages=1612–3 |doi=10.1126/science.330.6011.1612|journal=Science|bibcode = 2010Sci...330.1612. }}</ref> Hierdie joernale het ook verwysings na 'n onlangse algemeen beskikbare video ([https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I64X7vHSHOE Metode van die jaar video]) van algemene belang ingesluit, benewens tekstuele ([http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=optogenetics-controlling SciAm]) opsommings van optogenetika.
 
==Kyk ook==
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