The bay was discovered by the [[ portugal| Portuguese]] navigator [[Antonio de Campo]], one of [[Vasco da Gama]]s companions, in [], and the Portuguese post of [ [Lourenco Marques]] ( now Maputo) was established not long after on the north side of the English river.
In [] the [[Dutch East India Company]] built a fort and factory called '''Lijdzaamheid (Lydsaamheid)''' on the spot of Lourenço Marques (now Maputo), since April 1721 governed by an [[Opperhoofd]] (Chief facor), under authority of the Dutch Cape Colony, interrupted by Taylor's pirate occupation April 1722 - 28 August 1722; in December 1730 the settlement was abandoned.
Thereafter the Portuguese had - intermittently - trading stations in the Espirito Santo estuary. These stations were protected by small forts, usually incapable, however, of withstanding attacks by the natives.
In [] Captain (afterwards Vice-Admiral) [[W. F. W. Owen]], of the [[Royal Navy]], finding that the Portuguese exercised no jurisdiction south of the settlement of Lourenco Marques, concluded treaties of cession with native chiefs, hoisted the British flag, and appropriated the country from the English river southwards; but when he visited the bay again in 1824 he found that the Portuguese, disregarding the British treaties, had concluded others with the natives, and had endeavoured (unsuccessfully) to take military possession of the country. Captain Owen rehoisted the British flag, but the sovereignty of either power was left undecided till the claims of the [[Transvaal Republic]] rendered a solution of the question urgent. In the meantime Great Britain had taken no steps to exercise authority on the spot, while the ravages of [[Zulu]] hordes confined Portuguese authority to the limits of their fort. In [] [[Boer]]s, under a leader named [[Orich]], had attempted to form a settlement on the bay, which is the natural outlet for the Transvaal; and in 1868 the Transvaal president, [[Marthinus Pretorius]], claimed the country on each side of the Maputa down to the sea. In the following year, however, the Transvaal acknowledged Portugals sovereignty over the bay.
In 1861 Navy Captain Bickford, had declared Inyak and Elephant islands British territory; an act protested against by the Lisbon authorities. In 1872 the dispute between Great Britain and Portugal was submitted to the arbitration of [[M. Thiers]], the French president; and on the 19th of April 1875 his successor, [[Marshal MacMahon]], declared in favor of the Portuguese. It had been previously agreed by Great Britain and Portugal that the right of pre-emption in case of sale or cession should be given to the unsuccessful claimant to the bay. Portuguese authority over the interior was not established until some time after the MacMahon award; nominally the country south of the Manhissa river was ceded to them by the [[Matshangana]] chief [[Umzila]] in 1861.
In 1889 another dispute arose between Portugal and Great Britain in consequence of the seizure by the Portuguese of the railway running from the bay to the Transvaal. This dispute was referred to arbitration, and in 1900 Portugal was condemned to pay nearly 1,000,000 pounds in compensation. to the shareholders in the railway company.
==Bronne en Verwysings==
*Sir E. Hertslet, ''The Map of Africa by Treaty'', iii. 991-998 (London, 1909)- an account of the Delagoa Bay arbitration proceedings
* the British blue-book, ''Delagoa Bay, Correspondence respecting the Claims of Her Majestys Government'' (London, 1875)
* L. van Deventer, ''La Hollande et la Baie Delagoa'' (The Hague, 1883)
* G. McC. Theal, ''The Portuguese in South Africa'' (London, 1896), and ''History of South Africa since September 179,f'', vol. v. (London, 1908). ''The Narrative of Voyages to explore the shores of Africa, performed under direction of Captain W. F. W. Owen, RN.'' (London, 1833) contains much interesting information concerning the district in the early part of the 19th century.
*[http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Mozambique.htm#Delagoa WorldStatesmen- Mozambique]