- /b, d, ɡ, ʝ/ are pronounced as the fricatives or approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕, ʝ˕] (represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/ or, in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/, after an /l/. Then, they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ] like English b, d, g, j, but they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts. When it is distinct from /ʝ/, /ʎ/ is realized as an approximant [ʎ] in all positions Sjabloon:Harvcol.
- Most speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from Sjabloon:IPAslink; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
- The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ contrast only before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation, which is partially reflected in the orthography. The three do not contrast at the end of a word; depending on dialect, the neutralized nasal may appear as [n], [ŋ], or nasalization of the preceding vowel.
- The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ and /r/ contrast only between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution, with Sjabloon:IPAblink occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only Sjabloon:IPAblink is found elsewhere.
- Northern and Central Spain still distinguish between Sjabloon:Angbr (Sjabloon:IPAslink) and soft Sjabloon:Angbr or Sjabloon:Angbr (Sjabloon:IPAslink). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as Sjabloon:IPAslink. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft Sjabloon:Angbr, Sjabloon:Angbr and even Sjabloon:Angbr as Sjabloon:IPAslink, a phenomenon called ceceo. See phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
- [v] and [z] are allophones of, respectively, /f/ and /s/ before voiced consonants.
- The letter Sjabloon:Angbr represents /x/ only in certain proper names like Ximena and some placenames in current or former Mexico (Oaxaca, Texas).
- The letter Sjabloon:Angbr represents /x/ only in loanwords; in native words, it is always silent.
- /ʃ/ is used only in loanwords and certain proper nouns. It is nonexistent in many dialects, being realized as Sjabloon:IPAblink or Sjabloon:IPAblink; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
- The semivowels Sjabloon:IPAblink and Sjabloon:IPAblink can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with Sjabloon:IPAslink and Sjabloon:IPAslink.
- Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic [ɡ]; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].
- Animations and video demonstrations of the IPA for Spanish by The Departments of Spanish and Portuguese, German, Speech Pathology and Audiology, and Academic Technologies at the University of Iowa.
- Spanish Phonetic Transcription Converter—Free Online Tool to convert Spanish Text to IPA Phonetic Transcription