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Wikipedia se inhoud: Natuurlike en Natuurwetenskappe

A fragment of DNA.
Natuurwetenskap word tradisioneel as die studie van die fisiese nie-lewende aspekte van die wêreld en die hemelruim om ons heen gedefinieer. As 'n groep kan die natuurwetenskappe onderskei word van teologie en die sosiale wetenskappe aan die een kant en van die kunste en die geesteswetenskappe aan die ander kant.

Wiskunde is op sigself nie 'n natuurwetenskap nie maar verskaf baie van die kernmetodes van die ander wetenskappe. Natuurwetenskap poog oor die algemeen om die werkinge van die wêreld deur middel van natuurlike prosesse eerder as deur goddelike ingryping te verklaar. Die term natuurwetenskap word ook gebruik om wetenskap as 'n vak te identifiseer wat die wetenskaplike metode gebruik.

Natuurwetenskappe as term word egter deesdae ook gebruik om te verwys na die begrip wat nader aan die alledaagse betekenis van die term is naamlik die kennis van die natuur en kan dus 'n vak soos biologie insluit.

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Wetenskap – systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world.[1][2][3][4] An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that of Aristoteles, for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained.[5]

  • Basis of science
  • Branches of science
    • Natural sciences
      • Biology – The study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.[8]
        • Anatomy – The study of the structure of living things.
        • Biochemistry – The study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter.
        • Botany – The study of plant life.
        • Cell biology – The study of cells; Their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death.
        • Genetics – The study of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.[9][10]
        • Health and fitness
        • Immunology – The study of the immune system in all organisms.
        • Paleontology – The study of prehistoric life, including organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology).
          • Dinosaurs – diverse group of animals that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period (about 230 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous (about 65 million years ago), when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of most dinosaur species at the close of the Mesozoic era.
        • Ecology – The study of interactions between organisms and their environment.
        • Zoology – The study of the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct.
      • Physical science – encompasses the branches of science that study non-living systems, in contrast to the life sciences. However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena.
        • Astronomy – The study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation).
        • Chemistry – The study of matter, especially its properties, structure, composition, behavior, reactions, interactions and the changes it undergoes.
          • Organic chemistry – The study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.
          • Water – chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam).
        • Earth science – all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.[12] It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet.
          • Geography – study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena.[13] A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth".
          • Geology – The study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere. The field of geology encompasses the composition, structure, physical properties, and history of Earth's components, and the processes by which they are shaped. Geologists typically study rock, sediment, soil, rivers, and natural resources.
          • Meteorology – The study of the atmosphere.
        • Physics – The study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.
          • Energy – an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems.[14][15] Since work is defined as a force acting through a distance (a length of space), energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert pulls or pushes against the basic forces of nature, along a path of a certain length.
  1. "Online dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Besoek op 2009-05-22. knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method . . . such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena
  2. Popper 2002, p. 3.
  3. Wilson, Edward (1999). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0-679-76867-X.
  4. Ludwik Fleck (1935), Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact reminds us that before a specific fact 'existed', it had to be created as part of a social agreement within a community.
  5. Aristotle, ca. 4th century BCE "[[Nicomachean Ethics]] Book VI, and [[Metaphysics (Aristotle)|Metaphysics]] Book I:". URL–wikilink conflict (help) "In general the sign of knowledge or ignorance is the ability to teach, and for this reason we hold that art rather than experience is scientific knowledge (epistemē); for the artists can teach, but the others cannot." — Aristot. Met. 1.981b
  6. Goldhaber & Nieto 2010
  7. "[4] Rules for the study of natural philosophy", Newton 1999, pp. 794–6, from Book 3, The System of the World.
  8. Based on definition from Aquarena Wetlands Project glossary of terms.
  9. Griffiths, William M.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Suzuki, David T.; Lewontin, Richard C.; Gelbart, reds. (2000). "Genetics and the Organism: Introduction". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th uitg.). New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-3520-2. More than one of |editor1-first= and |editor-first= specified (help)
  10. Hartl D, Jones E (2005)
  11. Martin, R. Aidan. "Geologic Time". ReefQuest. Besoek op 2006-09-09.
  12. Wordnet Search: Earth science
  13. "Geography". The American Heritage Dictionary/ of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. Besoek op October 9, 2006.
  14. "Retrieved on 2010-Dec-05". Faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu. Besoek op 2010-12-12.
  15. "Retrieved on 2010-Dec-05" (PDF). Besoek op 2010-12-12.

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Biology • Ecology • Health sciences • Medicine • Neuroscience • (See also the Health and fitness section above)

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Physical sciences • Astronomy • Chemistry • Climate • Earth sciences • Geology • Physics • Space

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