Verskil tussen weergawes van "Dier"

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|last15=Kristensen |first15=Reinhardt Møbjerg |last16=Wheeler |first16=Ward C. |last17=Martindale |first17=Mark Q. |last18=Giribet |first18=Gonzalo |displayauthors=1 |bibcode=2008Natur.452..745D |last14=Okusu |first14=Akiko}}</ref> en ander navorsers meen dit is ’n statistieke ongerymdheid.<ref>{{Cite journal|title = Phylogenomics Revives Traditional Views on Deep Animal Relationships|url = http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822(09)00805-7|journal = Current Biology|issn = 0960-9822|pmid = 19345102|pages = 706–712|volume = 19|issue = 8|doi = 10.1016/j.cub.2009.02.052|first = Hervé|last = Philippe|first2 = Romain|last2 = Derelle|first3 = Philippe|last3 = Lopez|first4 = Kerstin|last4 = Pick|first5 = Carole|last5 = Borchiellini|first6 = Nicole|last6 = Boury-Esnault|first7 = Jean|last7 = Vacelet|first8 = Emmanuelle|last8 = Renard|first9 = Evelyn|last9 = Houliston|date=April 2009}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = Improved Phylogenomic Taxon Sampling Noticeably Affects Nonbilaterian Relationships|url = http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/9/1983|journal = Molecular Biology and Evolution|date = September 2010|issn = 0737-4038|pmc = 2922619|pmid = 20378579|pages = 1983–1987|volume = 27|issue = 9|doi = 10.1093/molbev/msq089|first = K. S.|last = Pick|first2 = H.|last2 = Philippe|first3 = F.|last3 = Schreiber|first4 = D.|last4 = Erpenbeck|first5 = D. J.|last5 = Jackson|first6 = P.|last6 = Wrede|first7 = M.|last7 = Wiens|first8 = A.|last8 = Alié|first9 = B.|last9 = Morgenstern}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = Deep metazoan phylogeny: When different genes tell different stories|url = http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790313000298|journal = Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution|date = 1 April 2013|pages = 223–233|volume = 67|issue = 1|doi = 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.01.010|first = Tetyana|last = Nosenko|first2 = Fabian|last2 = Schreiber|first3 = Maja|last3 = Adamska|first4 = Marcin|last4 = Adamski|first5 = Michael|last5 = Eitel|first6 = Jörg|last6 = Hammel|first7 = Manuel|last7 = Maldonado|first8 = Werner E. G.|last8 = Müller|first9 = Michael|last9 = Nickel |pmid=23353073}}</ref>
 
[[Beeld:Elephant-ear-sponge.jpg|thumb|links|160px|’n Oranje olifantoorspons, ''Agelas clathrodes'', voor en twee korale, ''Iciligorgia schrammi'' en ''Plexaurella nutans'', agter.]]
Filums soos Ctenophora en [[Cnidaria]], wat [[seeanemone]], [[korale]] en [[jellievis]]se insluit, is radiaal (straalsgewys) simmetries en het spysverteringskamers met een opening wat as mond én anus dien.<ref>{{cite book |title=A Living Bay: The Underwater World of Monterey Bay |year=2000 |publisher=University of California Press |isbn=978-0-520-22149-9 |last1=Langstroth |first1=Lovell |last2=Langstroth |first2=Libby |editor-last=Newberry |editor-first=Todd |page=244}}</ref> Albei het verskillende soorte weefsel, maar dit is nie in [[Orgaan|organe]] georganiseer nie.<ref>{{cite book|last=Safra|first=Jacob E.|title=The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 16|year=2003|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica|isbn=978-0-85229-961-6|page=523}}</ref> Daar is net twee hoofkiemlae, die ektoderm en endoderm, met net verstrooide selle tussenin. Daarom word dié diere soms "diploblasties" genoem.<ref>{{cite book|last=Kotpal|first=R. L.|title=Modern Text Book of Zoology: Invertebrates|publisher=Rastogi Publications|isbn=978-81-7133-903-7|page=184}}</ref>
 
Daar word nou geglo die [[Myxozoa]], mikroskopiese [[parasiet]]e wat aanvanklik as Protozoa beskou is, het binne Cnidaria ontwikkel.<ref>{{Cite journal|title = Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria|url = http://www.pnas.org/content/112/48/14912|journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences|date = 1 December 2015|issn = 0027-8424|pmid = 26627241|pages = 14912–14917|volume = 112|issue = 48|doi = 10.1073/pnas.1511468112|first = E. Sally|last = Chang|first2 = Moran|last2 = Neuhof|first3 = Nimrod D.|last3 = Rubinstein|first4 = Arik|last4 = Diamant|first5 = Hervé|last5 = Philippe|first6 = Dorothée|last6 = Huchon|first7 = Paulyn|last7 = Cartwright|pmc=4672818|bibcode = 2015PNAS..11214912C}}</ref>
 
===Diere met bilaterale simmetrie===
Alle ander diere vorm ’n monofiletiese groep wat Bilateria genoem word. Hulle is meestal bilateraal simmetries en het dikwels ’n gespesialseerde kop met voedings- en sintuiglike organe. Die liggaam is triploblasties – dit beteken al drie kiemlae is goed ontwikkel – en weefsel vorm afsonderlike organe. Die spysverteringskanaal het twee openinge, ’n mond en ’n anus, en daar is ’n interne holte bekend as ’n seloom (of [[buikholte]]) of pseudoseloom (skynbuikholte). Daar is uitsonderings op al hierdie eienskappe.
 
[[Geen|Genetiese]] studies het ons begrip van die verhouding tussen die diere in Bilateria aansienlik verander. Dit lyk of die meeste tot twee groot stambome behoort: Deuterostoma en Protostoma; laasgenoemde sluit in die Ecdysozoa en Lophotrochozoa. Die Chaetognatha is aanvanklik as Deuterostoma geklassifiseer, maar onlangse molekulêre studies het dié groep geëien as ’n basale Protostoma-lyn.<ref>{{Cite journal|title = Chaetognath phylogenomics: a protostome with deuterostome-like development|url = http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822(06)01835-5 |journal = Current Biology|date = 8 August 2006|issn = 0960-9822|pmid = 16890510|pages = R577–R578|volume = 16|issue = 15|doi = 10.1016/j.cub.2006.07.016|first = Ferdinand|last = Marlétaz|first2 = Elise|last2 = Martin|first3 = Yvan|last3 = Perez|first4 = Daniel|last4 = Papillon|first5 = Xavier|last5 = Caubit|first6 = Christopher J.|last6 = Lowe|first7 = Bob|last7 = Freeman|first8 = Laurent|last8 = Fasano|first9 = Carole|last9 = Dossat}}</ref>
 
Daar is ook ’n paar klein groepe diere met bilaterale simmetrie met relatief kriptiese morfologie waarvan die verwantskap met ander diere nog nie baie duidelik is nie. So het onlangse molekulêre studies Acoelomorpha en ''Xenoturbella'' geëien as behorende tot ’n monofiletiese groep,<ref name="Hejnol">{{cite journal | last1 = Hejnol | first1 = A. | last2 = Obst | first2 = M. | last3 = Stamatakis | first3 = A. | last4 = Ott | first4 = M. | last5 = Rouse | first5 = G. W. | last6 = Edgecombe | first6 = G. D. | display-authors = 6 | last7 = et al | year = 2009 | title = Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods | journal = Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | volume = 276 | issue = | pages = 4261–4270 | doi=10.1098/rspb.2009.0896 | pmid=19759036 | pmc=2817096}}</ref><ref name="Philippe2011" /><ref name="Edgecombe 2011">{{Cite journal|last2=Giribet|first2=G.|last3=Dunn|first3=C. W.|last4=Hejnol|first4=A.|last5=Kristensen|first5=R. M.|last6=Neves|first6=R. C.|last7=Rouse|first7=G. W.|last8=Worsaae|first8=K.|last9=Sørensen|first9=M. V.|year=2011|title=Higher-level metazoan relationships: Recent progress and remaining questions|journal=Organisms Diversity & Evolution|volume=11|issue=2|pages=151–172 |doi=10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4|pmc=|pmid=|last1=Edgecombe|first1=G. D.}}</ref> maar daar is weinig ooreenstemming oor of die groep uit Deuterostoma ontwikkel het,<ref name="Philippe2011">{{Cite journal | last1 = Philippe | first1 = H. | last2 = Brinkmann | first2 = H. | last3 = Copley | first3 = R. R. | last4 = Moroz | first4 = L. L. | last5 = Nakano | first5 = H. | last6 = Poustka | first6 = A. J. | last7 = Wallberg | first7 = A. | last8 = Peterson | first8 = K. J. | last9 = Telford | first9 = M. J. | title = Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to ''Xenoturbella'' | journal = Nature | volume = 470 | pages = 255–258 | year = 2011 | pmid = 21307940 | doi = 10.1038/nature09676 |bibcode = 2011Natur.470..255P | issue=7333 | pmc=4025995}}</ref> en of dit ’n sustergroep van alle ander diere met bilaterale simmetrie (Nephrozoa) verteenwoordig.<ref name="Rouse 2016">{{cite journal |last=Rouse |first=Greg W. |last2=Wilson |first2=Nerida G. |last3=Carvajal |first3=Jose I. |last4=Vrijenhoek |first4=Robert C. |date=2016-02-03 |title=New deep-sea species of Xenoturbella and the position of Xenacoelomorpha |url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v530/n7588/full/nature16545.html |journal=Nature |publisher= |volume= 530|issue=7588 |pages=94–97 |doi=10.1038/nature16545 |access-date=2016-02-03 |pmid=26842060|bibcode=2016Natur.530...94R }}</ref><ref name="Cannon 2016">{{cite journal |last=Cannon |first=Johanna T. |last2=Vellutini |first2=Bruno C. |last3=Smith III |first3=Julian. |last4=Ronquist |first4=Frederik |last5=Jondelius |first5=Ulf |last6=Hejnol |first6=Andreas |date=2016-02-03 |title=Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa |url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v530/n7588/full/nature16520.html |journal=Nature |publisher= |volume= 530|issue=7588 |pages=89–93 |doi=10.1038/nature16520 |access-date=2016-02-03 |pmid=26842059|bibcode=2016Natur.530...89C }}</ref> Ander groepe met onsekere verwantskap sluit Rhombozoa en Orthonectida in. Een filum, Monoblastozoa, is in 1892 deur ’n wetenskaplike beskryf, maar tot dusver was daar geen verdere bewys dat dit bestaan nie.<ref>[http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/32652/title/Gone-Missing--circa-1892/ Gone Missing, circa 1892]</ref>
 
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