Gebruiker:Francis Tyers/Sandbox

Russian EmpireWysig

Die Russiese Ryk (moderne Russies: Российская империя, transliterasie: Rossijskaja Imperija) was 'n staat wat bestaan het van 1721 tot die Russiese Revolusie van 1917. Dit was die opvolger van die Tsardom van Rusland, en die voorganger van die Sowjetunie. Dit was een van die grootste ryke wat die wêreld gesien het. Op een tydstip <punt> in 1866, het dit gestrek <dit het gestrek> van oostelike Europa, oor noordelike Asië, en tot in <in> Noord-Amerika. Aan die begin van die 19de eeu, was Rusland <Ruslan was> die grootste land in die wêreld, <strek> van die Arktiese Oseaan na die noorde tot die Oossee aan die suide, van die Oossee aan die weste na die Stille Oseaan aan die ooste. Oor hierdie uitgestrekte gebied/terrein, was gestrooi <verstrooi> die Tsar se 150 miljoen onderdane, van arm, ongeletterde plattelanders <landmanne> tot die edele families van groot rykdom. Sy regering, geheers deur die Tsar, was een van die laaste absolute monargieë oor in Europa.

The Russian Empire (Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia, and the predecessor of the Soviet Union. It was one of the largest empires the world had seen. At one point in 1866, it stretched from eastern Europe, across northern Asia, and into North America. At the beginning of the 19th century, Russia was the largest country in the world, extending from the Arctic Ocean to the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east. Across this vast realm were scattered the Tsar's 150 million subjects, from poor, illiterate peasants to the noble families of great wealth. Its government, ruled by the Tsar, was one of the last absolute monarchies left in Europe.


Die Russiese Ryk was 'n natuurlike opvolger van die Tsardom van Moskou. Alhoewel die ryk <was> slegs amptelik <geproklameer> deur Tsar Pieter na die Verdrag van Nystad (1721) geproklameer was, sommige geskiedkundiges wou stry dat <was> werklik <waarlik> gebore wanneer Pieter opgevolg het <het opgevolg> na die troon in vroeg 1682.

The Russian Empire was a natural successor to the Tsardom of Muscovy. Though the empire was only officially proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad (1721), some historians would argue that it was truly born when Peter acceeded to the throne in early 1682.


Die administratiewe grense van Europese Rusland, apart van Finland, het breed ooreengestem <saamgeval> met die natuurlike limiete van die Oos-Europese vlaktes. In die Noorde <dit het ontmoet> het dit die Arktiese oseaan ontmoet; die eilande van Novaja Semlja, Kolgujew en Waigatsj het ook aan dit behoort <ook behoort aan dit>, maar die Karasee was gereken aan Siberië. Na die Ooste het dit <dit het gehad> die Asiatiese heerskappye <dominiums / vrygeweste> van die ryk gehad, Siberië en die Kirgisiese steppes, waarvan <van> beide <van watter> dit geskei was <was geskei> deur die Oeralgebergte, die Oeralrivier en die Kaspiese See - die administratiewe grens, het egter <egter>, gedeeltelik gestrek tot in <in> Asië op die Siberiese helling van die Oerals. Na die Suide het dit <dit het gehad> die Swart See en Kaukasië gehad, <wees> geskei van die laasgenoemde deur die Manitsj laagte, wat in die post-Plioseense tye <was gekonnekteer> die See van Asow met die Kaspiese See gekonnekteer het. Die Wes grens was puur konvensioneel: dit <het gekruis> het die skiereiland van Kola van die Varangerfjord gekruis tot die Golf van Botnië; daarvandaan <dit het gehardloop> het dit na die Koerse lagune in die suidelike Oossee gehardloop, en daarvandaan na die mond van die Donau. Van die Donau, <dit het geneem> het dit 'n groot sirkelvormige swaai na die Weste geneem om Pole te omhels en <skei> Rusland van Pruise, Oostenrykse Galisië en Roemenië te skei.


The administrative boundaries of European Russia, apart from Finland, coincided broadly with the natural limits of the East-European plains. In the North it met the Arctic Ocean; the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Kolguyev and Vaigach also belonged to it, but the Kara Sea was reckoned to Siberia. To the East it had the Asiatic dominions of the empire, Siberia and the Kyrgyz steppes, from both of which it was separated by the Ural Mountains, the Ural River and the Caspian Sea — the administrative boundary, however, partly extending into Asia on the Siberian slope of the Urals. To the South it had the Black Sea and Caucasus, being separated from the latter by the Manych depression, which in Post-Pliocene times connected the Sea of Azov with the Caspian. The West boundary was purely conventional: it crossed the peninsula of Kola from the Varangerfjord to the Gulf of Bothnia; thence it ran to the Kurisches Haff in the southern Baltic, and thence to the mouth of the Danube. From the Danube, it took a great circular sweep to the West to embrace Poland, and separating Russia from Prussia, Austrian Galicia and Romania.

PartisansWysig

The Partisans were the communist resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during the Second World War, in the very beginning of the war alongside rival Chetniks, the Yugoslav People's Liberation War.

The occupying forces instituted such severe burdens on the local populace (in certain instances the army of Nazi Germany would hang or shoot indiscriminately, including women, children and the elderly, up to 100 local inhabitants for every one Wehrmacht soldier killed) that the Partisans came not only to enjoy widespread support but for many were the only option for survival.

The Partisans and the People's Liberation Army fought a guerrilla campaign which enjoyed gradually increased levels of support among the population. People's committees were organised to act as civilian governments in liberated areas of the country, and even limited arms industries were established.

At the very beginning, partisan forces were relatively small, poorly armed and without any infrastructure. But they had two major advantages over other military and paramilitary formations in the former Yugoslavia.

The first and most immediate was a small but valuable cadre of Spanish Civil War veterans who, unlike anyone else at the time, had some experience with modern war fought in circumstances quite similar to those in the Second World War in Yugoslavia.

Another, which became apparent in later stages of war, was in Partisans being founded on communist ideology rather than ethnicity. Therefore Partisans could expect at least some levels of support in almost any corner of the country, unlike other paramilitary formations limited to territories with Croat or Serb majority. This allowed their units to be more mobile and fill their ranks with larger pool of potential recruits.

Occupying and quisling forces were quite aware of the Partisan problem, and tried to solve it in seven major anti-partisan offensives. The biggest were combined by Wehrmacht, the SS, Fascist Italy, Ustaše, Chetniks and Bulgarian forces.

Yugoslavia was one of the two European countries that were liberated by its own communist forces during the Second World War, with the assistance and active participation of the Soviet regime (the other one being Albania with the aid of Yugoslavia). It received support from both Western Allies and the Soviet Union, and at the end of the war no foreign troops were stationed on its land.